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Field Study Algerian

History
Best of Algiers Tour By Algeriatours16
Algiers, Algeria, Africa
Investment value  89.75 USD 
Certified Study Package
Cover the highlights of Algiers on this full-day private tour of the history-packed Algerian capital. Wander down narrow, centuries-old streets in the atmospheric Casbah, stroll through the colonial-style Hamma Botanical Garden, and get a first-hand peek at the iconic Martyrs’ Monument, which commemorates the Algerian war for independence. A full-day highlights of Algiers private tour, with door-to-door hotel transfers Cover the city’s top sights and be back in your hotel well in time for dinner Postcard-perfect photo opps: enjoy panoramic views over the Bay of Algiers Upgrade to include a freshly prepared traditional lunch, at an additional cost
Syllabus Study method
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Departure Point Traveler pickup is offered Itinerary Pass By: Kasbah of Algiers Enjoy a complementary hotel pick up within Algiers downtown , we'll first start our visit in the upper part of Casbah in which we will stroll down the narrowed streets that are filled with history , pass by some craftsmen shops and visit of the palace of Mustapha Pasha one of the few palaces of the Ottoman era which conceals the Casbah today and which shelter respectively ththe Museum of Calligraphy and the miniature, pass by the Ketchaoua mosque and carry on to The Palais des Rais, also known as Bastion 23, is a classified historical monument, It is notable for its architecture and for being the last surviving quarter of the lower Casbah , afterwards we'll go uphill to the basilica of Notre Dame d'Afrique (lady of Africa) , is a Roman Catholic basilica that was inaugurated in 1872 we usually cater traditional lunch upon request as an extra charge afterwards we'll visit the Hamma botanical garden and its different sections from French to English styles & end up the tour by visiting the symbolic Martyr's monumen and its museum , an iconic concrete monument commemorating the Algerian war for independence. The monument was opened in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of Algeria's independence. It is fashioned in the shape of three standing palm leaves which shelter the "Eternal Flame" beneath hotel pick up 8:30 - 9 am hotel drop off : 5 - 5:30 pm included : hotel transfers admission tickets English guide Excluded : Lunch & drinks Gratuities ( optional Stop At: Basilique Notre Dame d'Afrique Enjoy a complementary hotel pick up within Algiers downtown , we'll first start our visit in the upper part of Casbah in which we will stroll down the narrowed streets that are filled with history , pass by some craftsmen shops and visit of the palace of Mustapha Pasha one of the few palaces of the Ottoman era which conceals the Casbah today and which shelter respectively ththe Museum of Calligraphy and the miniature, pass by the Ketchaoua mosque and carry on to The Palais des Rais, also known as Bastion 23, is a classified historical monument, It is notable for its architecture and for being the last surviving quarter of the lower Casbah , afterwards we'll go uphill to the basilica of Notre Dame d'Afrique (lady of Africa) , is a Roman Catholic basilica that was inaugurated in 1872 we usually cater traditional lunch upon request as an extra charge afterwards we'll visit the Hamma botanical garden and its different sections from French to English styles & end up the tour by visiting the symbolic Martyr's monumen and its museum , an iconic concrete monument commemorating the Algerian war for independence. The monument was opened in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of Algeria's independence. It is fashioned in the shape of three standing palm leaves which shelter the "Eternal Flame" beneath hotel pick up 8:30 - 9 am hotel drop off : 5 - 5:30 pm included : hotel transfers admission tickets English guide Excluded : Lunch & drinks Gratuities ( optional Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Le Jardin d'Essai du Hamma Enjoy a complementary hotel pick up within Algiers downtown , we'll first start our visit in the upper part of Casbah in which we will stroll down the narrowed streets that are filled with history , pass by some craftsmen shops and visit of the palace of Mustapha Pasha one of the few palaces of the Ottoman era which conceals the Casbah today and which shelter respectively ththe Museum of Calligraphy and the miniature, pass by the Ketchaoua mosque and carry on to The Palais des Rais, also known as Bastion 23, is a classified historical monument, It is notable for its architecture and for being the last surviving quarter of the lower Casbah , afterwards we'll go uphill to the basilica of Notre Dame d'Afrique (lady of Africa) , is a Roman Catholic basilica that was inaugurated in 1872 we usually cater traditional lunch upon request as an extra charge afterwards we'll visit the Hamma botanical garden and its different sections from French to English styles & end up the tour by visiting the symbolic Martyr's monumen and its museum , an iconic concrete monument commemorating the Algerian war for independence. The monument was opened in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of Algeria's independence. It is fashioned in the shape of three standing palm leaves which shelter the "Eternal Flame" beneath hotel pick up 8:30 - 9 am hotel drop off : 5 - 5:30 pm included : hotel transfers admission tickets English guide Excluded : Lunch & drinks Gratuities ( optional Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Memorial du Martyr Enjoy a complementary hotel pick up within Algiers downtown , we'll first start our visit in the upper part of Casbah in which we will stroll down the narrowed streets that are filled with history , pass by some craftsmen shops and visit of the palace of Mustapha Pasha one of the few palaces of the Ottoman era which conceals the Casbah today and which shelter respectively ththe Museum of Calligraphy and the miniature, pass by the Ketchaoua mosque and carry on to The Palais des Rais, also known as Bastion 23, is a classified historical monument, It is notable for its architecture and for being the last surviving quarter of the lower Casbah , afterwards we'll go uphill to the basilica of Notre Dame d'Afrique (lady of Africa) , is a Roman Catholic basilica that was inaugurated in 1872 we usually cater traditional lunch upon request as an extra charge afterwards we'll visit the Hamma botanical garden and its different sections from French to English styles & end up the tour by visiting the symbolic Martyr's monumen and its museum , an iconic concrete monument commemorating the Algerian war for independence. The monument was opened in 1982 on the 20th anniversary of Algeria's independence. It is fashioned in the shape of three standing palm leaves which shelter the "Eternal Flame" beneath hotel pick up 8:30 - 9 am hotel drop off : 5 - 5:30 pm included : hotel transfers admission tickets English guide Excluded : Lunch & drinks Gratuities ( optional Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free

Best of Algiers city by Fancyellow
Alger Centre, Algeria, Africa
Investment value  114.28 USD
Certified Study Package
A full-day private tour of Algiers by comfortable vehicle, with museum stops included. In-depth guided tours span hundreds of years of history, from Ottoman to colonial and contemporary heritage. Enjoy free time to grab a traditional local lunch on your own, in a high-recommended restrant. Upgrade to choose door to door to private car transfers from your Algiers hotel. 
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Departure Point Place Maurice Audin, Alger Ctre 16000, Algeria Right at the song board of place audit Departure Time 9:00 AM Return Details Chemin Omar Kechkar, El Madania, Algeria At the end of this tour we will drop you off at your hotel Itinerary Stop At: Basilique Notre Dame d'Afrique We visit the beautiful Church of Notre Dame d'Afrique that dominates the long bay above Bab El Oued and it offers a beautiful view and it has a fine ecclesiastical architecture. Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Kasbah of Algiers Our next bet will be the old 10th century city known as the Kasbah "The Citadelle" where you are going to walk on the cobbled narrow streets and explore the complex houses, palaces and mosques dating back the Ottoman period. Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Ketchaoua Mosque We reach to one of the most preserved Ottoman mosques of the lower Casbah and the first great building many people see, the 17th century Ketchaoua Mosque. Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Palais of Rais - Bastion 23 We move again to one of the most important, prestigious and historical monument of Algiers, Bastion 23 Palace which is located in front of the sea. It is a set of three palaces (17, 18 and 23) and you are going to discover the historical aspect and enjoy roaming through secrets rooms inside it. Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Le Port d'Alger We head past the mosque of the Fishermen and walk along the Seafront facing the sea. It just reminds you instantly of the port of Marseille with colorful small vessels and you will also find set of beautiful European buildings. Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Boulevard Des Martyrs We make our way to the downtown just off the main road of the Martyr's Square where you can see a large modern mosque in vivid yellow color and an ex-colonial church. Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Free Stop At: La Grande Poste d'Alger We walk past the most colossal building of the downtown, Grand Post office which is a fine example of French-designed, early 20th-century Moorish architecture. Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Le Jardin d'Essai du Hamma After finishing up with the busy downtown, we head to one of the most inviting places in Algiers, the Botanical Garden of El Hamma, a large garden dedicated to the collection and preservation of wide range of plants, gigantic trees and a central area with fountains and lawns. It's a great area to escape the heat and relax. Duration: 1 minute Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Memorial du Martyr Our next stop will be the landmark and the most imposing 92-meter-tall Monument to the Martyrs, situated on a hill and overlooking the whole city and apparent from different angles of Algiers. You will get a pretty great shot from certain vantage point. Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free

The Kasbah of Algiers
Casbah, Algeria, Africa
Investment value  40.40 USD 
Certified Study Package
Visit the nest of the Algerian revolution and discover the mythical places where the scene of the film "The Battle of Algiers" was shot. Discover the places of the revolution as well as the #magnificent Ottoman palace and the marvelous narrow streets full of stories and legends Guided by our guide islem genuine autochthonous Algiers
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Departure Point Rue Bab El Oued, Casbah 16000, Algeria Meeting in front of the Metro station of the Place des Martyrs Departure Time 9:00 AM Return Details Returns to original departure point Itinerary Stop At: Mausolee Sidi Abderrahmane Mausoleum of the patron saint of Algiers with lots of legends and anecdotes about this character Duration: 40 minutes Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Ketchaoua Mosque ketchaoua mosque, a marvel of architecture Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Musee Public National de l'Enluminure, de la Miniature et de la Calligraphie A magnificent Ottoman palace that contains thousands of details and legends Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Included Stop At: Kasbah of Algiers The Casbah (which means "citadel") is the old citadel of Algiers, little by little the Casbah was called the entire district around the citadel. The Casbah of Algiers was founded on the ruins of the ancient city founded by the Romans, Icosium. Built on a hill, descending to the sea and divided into two: the upper Casbah and the lower Casbah. The Casbah district was listed in 1992 on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Duration: 4 hours Admission Ticket Free

Environmental
Eloued Oasis
Guemar, Algeria, Africa
Investment value 353.99 USD 
Certified Study Package
Oasis,the Only city with special houses design(One Thousand Houses of Domes),plus desert dunes bashing 
Syllabus Study method
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Departure Point Unnamed Road, Guemar, Algeria Airport Car position Departure Time 8:00 AM Return Details Returns to original departure point Itinerary Day 1 Arrival 1 Stop El Oued The one Thousand houses of Domes and Oasis Duration: 8 hours Admission Ticket Free Accommodation: Eljanoub Residence Hotel Meals: Lunch Day 2 Desert Safari 1 Stop El Oued The Oasis and the dunes safari Duration: 8 hours Admission Ticket Free Accommodation: Eljanoub Residence hotel Meals: Lunch

Tamanrasset & Djanet Sahara of Africa
Algiers, Algeria, Africa
Investment value  827.55 USD 
Certified Study Package
Its Combined the Desert Safari i Tamanrasset Assecrem where the best Sun set and Sun rise in the world.Plus Djanet the amazing desert in Africa. 
Syllabus Study method
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Departure Point Traveler pickup is offered Airports Houari Boumediene Airport, Algiers Algeria Aguemar Airport, Tamanrasset Algeria Tiska Airport, 7FP6+M4G, Djanet, Algeria Departure Time 8:00 AM Itinerary Day 1 Algiers 1 Stop Algiers Pick up from the airport,to half day city tour Duration: 5 hours Admission Ticket Free Accommodation: Dar Elikram Algiers Hotel Meals: Lunch Day 2 Tamanrasset 1 Stop Tamanrasset s an oasis city and capital of Tamanrasset Province in southern Algeria, in the Ahaggar Mountains Duration: 12 hours Admission Ticket Free Accommodation: Camping in The desert Meals: Breakfast Day 3 Djanet 1 Stop Djanet The region of Djanet has been inhabited since Neolithic times. There were periods of ten thousand years at a time that the area was not desert. The flora and fauna were luxuriant as is seen in the numerous rock paintings of Tassili n'Ajjer around Djanet. Populations of hunter-gatherers lived there. Duration: 1 day Admission Ticket Free Accommodation: Camping in the desert Meals: Breakfast Day 4 Djanet 1 Stop Djanet Crossing the gorge of El Berdj before entering a world of impressive dune height and softness And Rock painting and engravings and Rock Helicopter Bivouac Moul Naga Duration: 1 day Admission Ticket Free Accommodation: Camping in the desert Meals: Breakfast Day 5 Djanet-Algiers 1 Stop La vache qui pleure ADJLATI – TIGHRGHRT – TIMGHAS - in the way back to Djanet will see rock elephant and visit the beautiful engraving of crying Cow witch has 8000BC ,then transfer to the airport for Algiers flight Duration: 15 hours Admission Ticket Free Accommodation: Suisse Hotel Algiers Meals: Breakfast Day 6 Departure 1 Stop Houari Boumediene Transfer to the airport for the flight onward destination Duration: 2 hours Admission Ticket Free Accommodation: Not Included Meals: Breakfast ;

Think Tanks

Wikipedia. Prehistory and ancient history
Around ~1.8-million-year-old stone artifacts from Ain Hanech (Algeria) were considered to represent the oldest archaeological materials in North Africa.[16] Stone artifacts and cut-marked bones that were excavated from two nearby deposits at Ain Boucherit are estimated to be ~1.9 million years old, and even older stone artifacts to be as old as ~2.4 million years.[16] Hence, the Ain Boucherit evidence shows that ancestral hominins inhabited the Mediterranean fringe in northern Africa much earlier than previously thought. The evidence strongly argues for early dispersal of stone tool manufacture and use from East Africa or a possible multiple-origin scenario of stone technology in both East and North Africa.

Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles (43,000 BC) similar to those in the Levant.[17][18] Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques.[19] Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian (after the archaeological site of Bir el Ater, south of Tebessa).

The earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian (located mainly in the Oran region). This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization (animal domestication and agriculture) developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb perhaps as early as 11,000 BC[20] or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC. This life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa.[21]

From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast; by 600 BC, a Phoenician presence existed at Tipasa, east of Cherchell, Hippo Regius (modern Annaba) and Rusicade (modern Skikda). These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages.

As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilisation was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, and political organisation supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion also resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others.

By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War.[22] They succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, and they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.[23]

In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established in Numidia, behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean. The high point of Berber civilisation, unequalled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium later, was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC.

After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were divided and reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire.

For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans, who founded many colonies in the region. Like the rest of North Africa, Algeria was one of the breadbaskets of the empire, exporting cereals and other agricultural products. Saint Augustine was the bishop of Hippo Regius (modern-day Annaba, Algeria), located in the Roman province of Africa. The Germanic Vandals of Geiseric moved into North Africa in 429, and by 435 controlled coastal Numidia.[24] They did not make any significant settlement on the land, as they were harassed by local tribes.[citation needed] In fact, by the time the Byzantines arrived Leptis Magna was abandoned and the Msellata region was occupied by the indigenous Laguatan who had been busy facilitating an Amazigh political, military and cultural revival.[24][25] Furthermore, during the rule of the Romans, Byzantines, Vandals, Carthaginians, and Ottomans the Berber people were the only or one of the few in North Africa who remained independent.[26][27][28][29] The Berber people were so resistant that even during the Muslim conquest of North Africa they still had control and possession over their mountains.[30][31]

The collapse of the Western Roman Empire led to the establishment of a native Kingdom based in Altava (modern day Algeria) known as the Mauro-Roman Kingdom. It was succeeded by another Kingdom based in Altava, the Kingdom of Altava. During the reign of Kusaila its territory extended from the region of modern-day Fez in the west to the western Aurès and later Kairaouan and the interior of Ifriqiya in the east.[32][33][34][35][36][37]

Middle Ages
After negligible resistance from the locals, Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate conquered Algeria in the early 8th century.

Large numbers of the indigenous Berber people converted to Islam. Christians, Berber and Latin speakers remained in the great majority in Tunisia until the end of the 9th century and Muslims only became a vast majority some time in the 10th.[38] After the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate, numerous local dynasties emerged, including the Rustamids, Aghlabids, Fatimids, Zirids, Hammadids, Almoravids, Almohads and the Abdalwadid. The Christians left in three waves: after the initial conquest, in the 10th century and the 11th. The last were evacuated to Sicily by the Normans and the few remaining died out in the 14th century.[38]

During the Middle Ages, North Africa was home to many great scholars, saints and sovereigns including Judah Ibn Quraysh, the first grammarian to mention Semitic and Berber languages, the great Sufi masters Sidi Boumediene (Abu Madyan) and Sidi El Houari, and the Emirs Abd Al Mu'min and Yāghmūrasen. It was during this time that the Fatimids or children of Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, came to the Maghreb. These ""Fatimids"" went on to found a long lasting dynasty stretching across the Maghreb, Hejaz and the Levant, boasting a secular inner government, as well as a powerful army and navy, made up primarily of Arabs and Levantines extending from Algeria to their capital state of Cairo. The Fatimid caliphate began to collapse when its governors the Zirids seceded. In order to punish them the Fatimids sent the Arab Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym against them. The resultant war is recounted in the epic Tāghribāt. In Al-Tāghrībāt the Amazigh Zirid Hero Khālīfā Al-Zānatī asks daily, for duels, to defeat the Hilalan hero Ābu Zayd al-Hilalī and many other Arab knights in a string of victories. The Zirids, however, were ultimately defeated ushering in an adoption of Arab customs and culture. The indigenous Amazigh tribes, however, remained largely independent, and depending on tribe, location and time controlled varying parts of the Maghreb, at times unifying it (as under the Fatimids). The Fatimid Islamic state, also known as Fatimid Caliphate made an Islamic empire that included North Africa, Sicily, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, the Red Sea coast of Africa, Tihamah, Hejaz and Yemen.[39][40][41] Caliphates from Northern Africa traded with the other empires of their time, as well as forming part of a confederated support and trade network with other Islamic states during the Islamic Era.

Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
The Amazighs historically consisted of several tribes. The two main branches were the Botr and Barnès tribes, who were divided into tribes, and again into sub-tribes. Each region of the Maghreb contained several tribes (for example, Sanhadja, Houara, Zenata, Masmouda, Kutama, Awarba, and Berghwata). All these tribes made independent territorial decisions.[42]

Several Amazigh dynasties emerged during the Middle Ages in the Maghreb and other nearby lands. Ibn Khaldun provides a table summarising the Amazigh dynasties of the Maghreb region, the Zirid, Ifranid, Maghrawa, Almoravid, Hammadid, Almohad, Merinid, Abdalwadid, Wattasid, Meknassa and Hafsid dynasties.[43] Both of the Hammadid and Zirid empires as well as the Fatimids established their rule in all of the Maghreb countries. The Zirids ruled land in what is now Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Libya, Spain, Malta and Italy. The Hammadids captured and held important regions such as Ouargla, Constantine, Sfax, Susa, Algiers, Tripoli and Fez establishing their rule in every country in the Maghreb region.[44][45][46] The Fatimids which was created and established by the Kutama Berbers [47][48] conquered all of North Africa as well as Sicily and parts of the Middle East.

Ifranid Dynasty
Maghrawa Dynasty
Zirid Dynasty
Hammadid Dynasty
Fatimid Caliphate[47][48]
Kingdom of Tlemcen

Following the Berber revolt numerous independent states emerged across the Maghreb. In Algeria the Rustamid Kingdom was established. The Rustamid realm stretched from Tafilalt in Morocco to the Nafusa mountains in Libya including south, central and western Tunisia therefore including territory in all of the modern day Maghreb countries, in the south the Rustamid realm expanded to the modern borders of Mali and included territory in Mauritania.[49][50][51]

Once extending their control over all of the Maghreb, part of Spain[52] and briefly over Sicily,[53] originating from modern Algeria, the Zirids only controlled modern Ifriqiya by the 11th century. The Zirids recognized nominal suzerainty of the Fatimid caliphs of Cairo. El Mu'izz the Zirid ruler decided to end this recognition and declared his independence.[54][55] The Zirids also fought against other Zenata Kingdoms, for example the Maghrawa, a Berber dynasty originating from Algeria and which at one point was a dominant power in the Maghreb ruling over much of Morocco and western Algeria including Fez, Sijilmasa, Aghmat, Oujda, most of the Sous and Draa and reaching as far as M’sila and the Zab in Algeria.[56][57][58][59]

As the Fatimid state was at the time too weak to attempt a direct invasion, they found another means of revenge. Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Bedouin nomad tribes expelled from Arabia for their disruption and turbulency. The Banu Hilal and the Banu Sulaym for example, who regularly disrupted farmers in the Nile Valley since the nomads would often loot their farms. The then Fatimid vizier decided to destroy what he couldn't control, and broke a deal with the chiefs of these Beduouin tribes.[60] The Fatimids even gave them money to leave.

Whole tribes set off with women, children, elders, animals and camping equipment. Some stopped on the way, especially in Cyrenaica, where they are still one of the essential elements of the settlement but most arrived in Ifriqiya by the Gabes region, arriving 1051.[61] The Zirid ruler tried to stop this rising tide, but with each encounter, the last under the walls of Kairouan, his troops were defeated and the Arabs remained masters of the battlefield. They Arabs usually didn't take control over the cities, instead looting them and destroying them.[55]

The invasion kept going, and in 1057 the Arabs spread on the high plains of Constantine where they encircled the Qalaa of Banu Hammad (capital of the Hammadid Emirate), as they had done in Kairouan a few decades ago. From there they gradually gained the upper Algiers and Oran plains. Some of these territories were forcibly taken back by the Almohads in the second half of the 12th century. The influx of Bedouin tribes was a major factor in the linguistic, cultural Arabization of the Maghreb and in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had previously been dominant.[62] Ibn Khaldun noted that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal tribes had become completely arid desert.[63]

The Almohads originating from modern day Morocco, although founded by a man originating from Algeria[64] known as Abd al-Mu'min would soon take control over the Maghreb. During the time of the Almohad Dynasty Abd al-Mu'min's tribe, the Koumïa, were the main supporters of the throne and the most important body of the empire.[65] Defeating the weakening Almoravid Empire and taking control over Morocco in 1147,[66] they pushed into Algeria in 1152, taking control over Tlemcen, Oran, and Algiers,[67] wrestling control from the Hilian Arabs, and by the same year they defeated Hammadids who controlled Eastern Algeria.[67]

Following their decisive defeat in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 the Almohads began collapsing, and in 1235 the governor of modern-day Western Algeria, Yaghmurasen Ibn Zyan declared his independence and established the Kingdom of Tlemcen and the Zayyanid dynasty. Warring with the Almohad forces attempting to restore control over Algeria for 13 years, they defeated the Almohads in 1248 after killing their Caliph in a successful ambush near Oujda.[68]

The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanids retained their control over Algeria for 3 centuries. Much of the eastern territories of Algeria were under the authority of the Hafsid dynasty,[69] although the Emirate of Bejaia encompassing the Algerian territories of the Hafsids would occasionally be independent from central Tunisian control. At their peak the Zayyanid kingdom included all of Morocco as its vassal to the west and in the east reached as far as Tunis which they captured during the reign of Abu Tashfin.[70][71][72][73][74][75]

After several conflicts with local Barbary pirates sponsored by the Zayyanid sultans,[76] Spain decided to invade Algeria and defeat the native Kingdom of Tlemcen. In 1505, they invaded and captured Mers el Kébir,[77] and in 1509 after a bloody siege, they conquered Oran.[78] Following their decisive victories over the Algerians in the western-coastal areas of Algeria, the Spanish decided to get bolder, and invaded more Algerian cities. In 1510, they led a series of sieges and attacks, taking over Bejaia in a large siege,[79] and leading a semi-successful siege against Algiers. They also besieged Tlemcen. In 1511, they took control over Cherchell[80] and Jijel, and attacked Mostaganem where although they weren't able to conquer the city, they were able to force a tribute on them.

Ottoman era
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
In 1516, the Ottoman privateer brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa, who operated successfully under the Hafsids, moved their base of operations to Algiers. They succeeded in conquering Jijel and Algiers from the Spaniards with help from the locals who saw them as liberators from the Christians, but the brothers eventually assassinated the local noble Salim al-Tumi and took control over the city and the surrounding regions. When Aruj was killed in 1518 during his invasion of Tlemcen, Hayreddin succeeded him as military commander of Algiers. The Ottoman sultan gave him the title of beylerbey and a contingent of some 2,000 janissaries. With the aid of this force and native Algerians, Hayreddin conquered the whole area between Constantine and Oran (although the city of Oran remained in Spanish hands until 1792).[81][82]

Hayreddin Barbarossa
The next beylerbey was Hayreddin's son Hasan, who assumed the position in 1544. He was a Kouloughli or of mixed origins, as his mother was an Algerian Mooresse.[83] Until 1587 Beylerbeylik of Algiers was governed by Beylerbeys who served terms with no fixed limits. Subsequently, with the institution of a regular administration, governors with the title of pasha ruled for three-year terms. The pasha was assisted by an autonomous janissary unit, known in Algeria as the Ojaq who were led by an agha. Discontent among the ojaq rose in the mid-1600s because they were not paid regularly, and they repeatedly revolted against the pasha. As a result, the agha charged the pasha with corruption and incompetence and seized power in 1659.[81]

Plague had repeatedly struck the cities of North Africa. Algiers lost from 30,000 to 50,000 inhabitants to the plague in 1620–21, and suffered high fatalities in 1654–57, 1665, 1691 and 1740–42.[84]

The Barbary pirates preyed on Christian and other non-Islamic shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea.[84] The pirates often took the passengers and crew on the ships and sold them or used them as slaves.[85] They also did a brisk business in ransoming some of the captives. According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th century, pirates captured 1 million to 1.25 million Europeans as slaves.[86] They often made raids, called Razzias, on European coastal towns to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in North Africa and other parts of the Ottoman Empire.[87][88] In 1544, for example, Hayreddin Barbarossa captured the island of Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners, and enslaved some 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari, almost the entire population.[89] In 1551, the Ottoman governor of Algiers, Turgut Reis, enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island of Gozo. Barbary pirates often attacked the Balearic Islands. The threat was so severe that residents abandoned the island of Formentera.[90] The introduction of broad-sail ships from the beginning of the 17th century allowed them to branch out into the Atlantic.[91]

In July 1627 two pirate ships from Algiers under the command of Dutch pirate Jan Janszoon sailed as far as Iceland,[92] raiding and capturing slaves.[93][94][95] Two weeks earlier another pirate ship from Salé in Morocco had also raided in Iceland. Some of the slaves brought to Algiers were later ransomed back to Iceland, but some chose to stay in Algeria. In 1629, pirate ships from Algeria raided the Faroe Islands.[96]

In 1671, the taifa of raises, or the company of corsair captains rebelled, killed the agha, and placed one of its own in power. The new leader received the title of Dey. After 1689, the right to select the dey passed to the divan, a council of some sixty nobles. It was at first dominated by the ojaq; but by the 18th century, it had become the dey's instrument. In 1710, the dey persuaded the sultan to recognise him and his successors as regent, replacing the pasha in that role. Although Algiers remained nominally part of the Ottoman Empire,[81] in reality they acted independently from the rest of the Empire,[97][98] and often had wars with other Ottoman subjects and territories such as the Beylik of Tunis.[99]

The dey was in effect a constitutional autocrat. The dey was elected for a life term, but in the 159 years (1671–1830) that the system was in place, fourteen of the twenty-nine deys were assassinated. Despite usurpation, military coups and occasional mob rule, the day-to-day operation of the Deylikal government was remarkably orderly. Although the regency patronised the tribal chieftains, it never had the unanimous allegiance of the countryside, where heavy taxation frequently provoked unrest. Autonomous tribal states were tolerated, and the regency's authority was seldom applied in the Kabylia,[81] although in 1730 the Regency was able to take control over the Kingdom of Kuku in western Kabylia.[100] Many cities in the northern parts of the Algerian desert paid taxes to Algiers or one of its Beys,[101] although they otherwise retained complete autonomy from central control, while the deeper parts of the Sahara were completely independent from Algiers.

Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
Barbary raids in the Mediterranean continued to attack Spanish merchant shipping, and as a result, the Spanish Navy bombarded Algiers in 1783 and 1784.[82] For the attack in 1784, the Spanish fleet was to be joined by ships from such traditional enemies of Algiers as Naples, Portugal and the Knights of Malta. Over 20,000 cannonballs were fired, much of the city and its fortifications were destroyed and most of the Algerian fleet was sunk.[102]

In 1792, Algiers took back Oran and Mers el Kébir, the two last Spanish strongholds in Algeria.[103] In the same year, they conquered the Moroccan Rif and Oujda, which they then abandoned in 1795.[104]

In the 19th century, Algerian pirates forged affiliations with Caribbean powers, paying a ""licence tax"" in exchange for safe harbour of their vessels.[105]

Attacks by Algerian pirates on American merchantmen resulted in the First and Second Barbary Wars, which ended the attacks on U.S. ships. A year later, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, under the command of Lord Exmouth bombarded Algiers to stop similar attacks on European fishermen. These efforts proved successful, although Algerian piracy would continue until the French conquest in 1830.[106]

French colonization (1830–1962)
Under the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded and captured Algiers in 1830.[107][108] Historian Ben Kiernan wrote on the French conquest of Algeria: ""By 1875, the French conquest was complete. The war had killed approximately 825,000 indigenous Algerians since 1830.""[109] French losses from 1831 to 1851 were 92,329 dead in the hospital and only 3,336 killed in action.[110][111] The population of Algeria, which stood at about 2.9 million in 1872, reached nearly 11 million in 1960.[112][unreliable source?] French policy was predicated on ""civilising"" the country.[113] The slave trade and piracy in Algeria ceased following the French conquest.[85] The conquest of Algeria by the French took some time and resulted in considerable bloodshed. A combination of violence and disease epidemics caused the indigenous Algerian population to decline by nearly one-third from 1830 to 1872.[114][115][unreliable source?] On September 17, 1860, Napoleon III declared ""Our first duty is to take care of the happiness of the three million Arabs, whom the fate of arms has brought under our domination.""[116]

During this time, only Kabylia resisted, the Kabylians were not colonized until after the Mokrani revolt in 1871.
From 1848 until independence, France administered the whole Mediterranean region of Algeria as an integral part and département of the nation. One of France's longest-held overseas territories, Algeria became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants, who became known as colons and later, as Pied-Noirs. Between 1825 and 1847, 50,000 French people emigrated to Algeria.[117][118] These settlers benefited from the French government's confiscation of communal land from tribal peoples, and the application of modern agricultural techniques that increased the amount of arable land.[119] Many Europeans settled in Oran and Algiers, and by the early 20th century they formed a majority of the population in both cities.[120]

During the late 19th and early 20th century, the European share was almost a fifth of the population. The French government aimed at making Algeria an assimilated part of France, and this included substantial educational investments especially after 1900. The indigenous cultural and religious resistance heavily opposed this tendency, but in contrast to the other colonised countries' path in central Asia and Caucasus, Algeria kept its individual skills and a relatively human-capital intensive agriculture.[121]

During the Second World War, Algeria came under Vichy control before being liberated by the Allies in Operation Torch, which saw the first large-scale deployment of American troops in the North African campaign.[122]

Gradually, dissatisfaction among the Muslim population, which lacked political and economic status under the colonial system, gave rise to demands for greater political autonomy and eventually independence from France. In May 1945, the uprising against the occupying French forces was suppressed through what is now known as the Sétif and Guelma massacre. Tensions between the two population groups came to a head in 1954, when the first violent events of what was later called the Algerian War began after the publication of the Declaration of 1 November 1954. Historians have estimated that between 30,000 and 150,000 Harkis and their dependants were killed by the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) or by lynch mobs in Algeria.[123] The FLN used hit and run attacks in Algeria and France as part of its war, and the French conducted severe reprisals.

The war led to the death of hundreds of thousands of Algerians and hundreds of thousands of injuries. Historians, like Alistair Horne and Raymond Aron, state that the actual number of Algerian Muslim war dead was far greater than the original FLN and official French estimates but was less than the 1 million deaths claimed by the Algerian government after independence. Horne estimated Algerian casualties during the span of eight years to be around 700,000.[124] The war uprooted more than 2 million Algerians.[125]

The war against French rule concluded in 1962, when Algeria gained complete independence following the March 1962 Evian agreements and the July 1962 self-determination referendum.

The first three decades of independence (1962–1991)
The number of European Pied-Noirs who fled Algeria totaled more than 900,000 between 1962 and 1964.[126] The exodus to mainland France accelerated after the Oran massacre of 1962, in which hundreds of militants entered European sections of the city, and began attacking civilians.

Algeria's first president was the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) leader Ahmed Ben Bella. Morocco's claim to portions of western Algeria led to the Sand War in 1963. Ben Bella was overthrown in 1965 by Houari Boumédiène, his former ally and defence minister. Under Ben Bella, the government had become increasingly socialist and authoritarian; Boumédienne continued this trend. But, he relied much more on the army for his support, and reduced the sole legal party to a symbolic role. He collectivised agriculture and launched a massive industrialisation drive. Oil extraction facilities were nationalised. This was especially beneficial to the leadership after the international 1973 oil crisis.

In the 1960s and 1970s under President Houari Boumediene, Algeria pursued a program of industrialisation within a state-controlled socialist economy. Boumediene's successor, Chadli Bendjedid, introduced some liberal economic reforms. He promoted a policy of Arabisation in Algerian society and public life. Teachers of Arabic, brought in from other Muslim countries, spread conventional Islamic thought in schools and sowed the seeds of a return to Orthodox Islam.[127]

The Algerian economy became increasingly dependent on oil, leading to hardship when the price collapsed during the 1980s oil glut.[128] Economic recession caused by the crash in world oil prices resulted in Algerian social unrest during the 1980s; by the end of the decade, Bendjedid introduced a multi-party system. Political parties developed, such as the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), a broad coalition of Muslim groups.[127]

Civil War (1991–2002) and aftermath
In December 1991 the Islamic Salvation Front dominated the first of two rounds of legislative elections. Fearing the election of an Islamist government, the authorities intervened on 11 January 1992, cancelling the elections. Bendjedid resigned and a High Council of State was installed to act as the Presidency. It banned the FIS, triggering a civil insurgency between the Front's armed wing, the Armed Islamic Group, and the national armed forces, in which more than 100,000 people are thought to have died. The Islamist militants conducted a violent campaign of civilian massacres.[129] At several points in the conflict, the situation in Algeria became a point of international concern, most notably during the crisis surrounding Air France Flight 8969, a hijacking perpetrated by the Armed Islamic Group. The Armed Islamic Group declared a ceasefire in October 1997.[127]

Algeria held elections in 1999, considered biased by international observers and most opposition groups[130] which were won by President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. He worked to restore political stability to the country and announced a ""Civil Concord"" initiative, approved in a referendum, under which many political prisoners were pardoned, and several thousand members of armed groups were granted exemption from prosecution under a limited amnesty, in force until 13 January 2000. The AIS disbanded and levels of insurgent violence fell rapidly. The Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat (GSPC), a splinter group of the Armed Islamic Group, continued a terrorist campaign against the Government.[127]

Bouteflika was re-elected in the April 2004 presidential election after campaigning on a programme of national reconciliation. The programme comprised economic, institutional, political and social reform to modernise the country, raise living standards, and tackle the causes of alienation. It also included a second amnesty initiative, the Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation, which was approved in a referendum in September 2005. It offered amnesty to most guerrillas and Government security forces.[127]

In November 2008, the Algerian Constitution was amended following a vote in Parliament, removing the two-term limit on Presidential incumbents. This change enabled Bouteflika to stand for re-election in the 2009 presidential elections, and he was re-elected in April 2009. During his election campaign and following his re-election, Bouteflika promised to extend the programme of national reconciliation and a $150-billion spending programme to create three million new jobs, the construction of one million new housing units, and to continue public sector and infrastructure modernisation programmes.[127]

A continuing series of protests throughout the country started on 28 December 2010, inspired by similar protests across the Middle East and North Africa. On 24 February 2011, the government lifted Algeria's 19-year-old state of emergency.[131] The government enacted legislation dealing with political parties, the electoral code, and the representation of women in elected bodies.[132] In April 2011, Bouteflika promised further constitutional and political reform.[127] However, elections are routinely criticised by opposition groups as unfair and international human rights groups say that media censorship and harassment of political opponents continue.

On 2 April 2019, Bouteflika resigned from the presidency after mass protests against his candidacy for a fifth term in office.[133]

In December 2019, Abdelmadjid Tebboune became Algeria's president, after winning the first round of the presidential election with a record abstention rate – the highest of all presidential elections since Algeria's democracy in 1989. Tebboune is close to the military and he is also accused of being loyal to the deposed president.[134]

History of Algeria
Data Government Agencies of Algeria
Prehistory of Central North Africa:
Early inhabitants of the central Maghrib (also seen as Maghreb; designates North Africa west of Egypt) left behind significant remains including remnants of hominid occupation from ca. 200,000 B.C. found near Saïda. Neolithic civilization (marked by animal domestication and subsistence agriculture) developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghrib between 6000 and 2000 B.C. This type of economy, so richly depicted in the Tassili-n-Ajjer cave paintings in southeastern Algeria, predominated in the Maghrib until the classical period. The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers. Distinguished primarily by cultural and linguistic attributes, the Berbers lacked a written language and hence tended to be overlooked or marginalized in historical accounts.

North Africa During the Classical Period: Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 B.C. and established Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) around 800 B.C. During the classical period, Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion also brought about the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and the extraction of tribute from others. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars, and in 146 B.C. the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the second century B.C., several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged.

Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire in A.D. 24. Increases in urbanization and in the area under cultivation during Roman rule caused wholesale dislocations of Berber society, and Berber opposition to the Roman presence was nearly constant. The prosperity of most towns depended on agriculture, and the region was known as the “granary of the empire.” Christianity arrived in the second century. By the end of the fourth century, the settled areas had become Christianized, and some Berber tribes had converted en masse.

Islam and the Arabs: The first Arab military expeditions into the Maghrib, between 642 and 669, resulted in the spread of Islam. By 711 the Umayyads (a Muslim dynasty based in Damascus from 661 to 750), helped by Berber converts to Islam, had conquered all of North Africa. In 750 the Abbasids succeeded the Umayyads as Muslim rulers and moved the caliphate to Baghdad. Under the Abbasids, the Rustumid imamate (761-909) actually ruled most of the central Maghrib from Tahirt, southwest of Algiers. The imams gained a reputation for honesty, piety, and justice, and the court of Tahirt was noted for its support of scholarship. The Rustumid imams failed, however, to organize a reliable standing army, which opened the way for Tahirt's demise under the assault of the Fatimid dynasty. With their interest focused primarily on Egypt and Muslim lands beyond, the Fatimids left the rule of most of Algeria to the Zirids (972-1148), a Berber dynasty that centered significant local power in Algeria for the first time. This period was marked by constant conflict, political instability, and economic decline. Following a large incursion of Arab bedouins from Egypt beginning in the first half of the eleventh century, the use of Arabic spread to the countryside, and sedentary Berbers were gradually Arabized.

The Almoravid (“those who have made a religious retreat”) movement developed early in the eleventh century among the Sanhaja Berbers of the western Sahara. The movement's initial impetus was religious, an attempt by a tribal leader to impose moral discipline and strict adherence to Islamic principles on followers. But the Almoravid movement shifted to engaging in military conquest after 1054. By 1106 the Almoravids had conquered Morocco, the Maghrib as far east as Algiers, and Spain up to the Ebro River.
Like the Almoravids, the Almohads (“unitarians”) found their inspiration in Islamic reform. The Almohads took control of Morocco by 1146, captured Algiers around 1151, and by 1160 had completed the conquest of the central Maghrib. The zenith of Almohad power occurred between 1163 and 1199. For the first time, the Maghrib was united under a local regime, but the continuing wars in Spain overtaxed the resources of the Almohads, and in the Maghrib their position was compromised by factional strife and a renewal of tribal warfare. In the central Maghrib, the Zayanids founded a dynasty at Tlemcen in Algeria. For more than 300 years, until the region came under Ottoman suzerainty in the sixteenth century, the Zayanids kept a tenuous hold in the central Maghrib. Many coastal cities asserted their autonomy as municipal republics governed by merchant oligarchies, tribal chieftains from the surrounding countryside, or the privateers who operated out of their ports. Nonetheless, Tlemcen, the “pearl of the Maghrib,” prospered as a commercial center.

The final triumph of the 700-year Christian reconquest of Spain was marked by the fall of Granada in 1492. Christian Spain imposed its influence on the Maghrib coast by constructing fortified outposts and collecting tribute. But Spain never sought to extend its North African conquests much beyond a few modest enclaves. Privateering was an age-old practice in the Mediterranean, and North African rulers engaged in it increasingly in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries because it was so lucrative. Algeria became the privateering city-state par excellence, and two privateer brothers were instrumental in extending Ottoman influence in Algeria. At about the time Spain was establishing its presidios in the Maghrib, the Muslim privateer brothers Aruj and Khair ad Din-the latter known to Europeans as Barbarossa, or Red Beard-were operating successfully off Tunisia. In 1516 Aruj moved his base of operations to Algiers but was killed in 1518. Khair ad Din succeeded him as military commander of Algiers, and the Ottoman sultan gave him the title of beylerbey (provincial governor). Under Khair ad Din's regency, Algiers became the center of Ottoman authority in the Maghrib. Subsequently, with the institution of a regular Ottoman administration, governors with the title of pasha ruled. Turkish was the official language, and Arabs and Berbers were excluded from government posts. In 1671 a new leader assumed power, adopting the title of dey. In 1710 the dey persuaded the sultan to recognize him and his successors as regent, replacing the pasha in that role. Although Algiers remained a part of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman government ceased to have effective influence there.

European maritime powers paid the tribute exacted by the rulers of the privateering states of North Africa (Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli [today Libya], and Morocco) to prevent attacks on their shipping. The Napoleonic wars of the early nineteenth century diverted the attention of the maritime powers from suppressing what they derogatorily called piracy. But when peace was restored to Europe in 1815, Algiers found itself at war with Spain, the Netherlands, Prussia [Germany], Denmark, Russia, and Naples [Italy]. In March of that year, the U.S. Congress also authorized naval action against the so-called Barbary States.

France in Algeria:
As a result of what the French considered an insult to the French consul in Algiers by the dey [Husayn Dey] in 1827, France blockaded Algiers for three years. France then used the failure of the blockade as a reason for a military expedition against Algiers in 1830. By 1848 nearly all of northern Algeria was under French control, and the new government of the Second Republic declared the occupied lands an integral part of France. Three ""civil territories Algiers, Oran, and Constantine were organized as French départements (local administrative units) under a civilian government. Colons (colonists), or, more popularly, pieds noirs (literally, black feet) dominated the government and controlled the bulk of Algeria's wealth. Throughout the colonial era, they continued to block or delay all attempts to implement even the most modest reforms. From 1933 to 1936, mounting social, political, and economic crises in Algeria induced the indigenous population to engage in numerous acts of political protest, but the government responded with more restrictive laws governing public order and security. Algerian Muslims rallied to the French side at the start of World War II as they had done in World War I. But the colons were generally sympathetic to the collaborationist Vichy regime established following France's defeat by Nazi Germany.

In March 1943, Muslim leader Ferhat Abbas presented the French administration with the Manifesto of the Algerian People, signed by 56 Algerian nationalist and international leaders. The manifesto demanded an Algerian constitution that would guarantee immediate and effective political participation and legal equality for Muslims. Instead, the French administration in 1944 instituted a reform package based on the 1936 Viollette Plan that granted full French citizenship only to certain categories of ""meritorious"" Algerian Muslims, who numbered about 60,000. The tensions between the Muslim and colon communities exploded on May 8, 1945, V-E Day. When a Muslim march was met with violence, marchers rampaged. The army and police responded by conducting a prolonged and systematic ratissage (literally, raking over) of suspected centers of dissidence. According to official French figures, 1,500 Muslims died as a result of these countermeasures. Other estimates vary from 6,000 to as high as 45,000 killed.
In August 1947, the French National Assembly approved the government-proposed Organic Statute of Algeria. This law called for the creation of an Algerian Assembly with one house representing Europeans and ""meritorious"" Muslims and the other representing the remaining 8 million or more Muslims. Muslim and colon deputies alike abstained or voted against the statute but for diametrically opposed reasons: the Muslims because it fell short of their expectations and the colons because it went too far.

War of Independence: In the early morning hours of November 1, 1954, the National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale-FLN) launched attacks throughout Algeria in the opening salvo of a war of independence. An important watershed in this war was the massacre of civilians by the FLN near the town of Philippeville in August 1955. The government claimed it killed 1,273 guerrillas in retaliation; according to the FLN, 12,000 Muslims perished in an orgy of bloodletting by the armed forces and police, as well as colon gangs. After Philippeville, all-out war began in Algeria.

From its origins in 1954 as ragtag maquisards [resistance fighters] numbering in the hundreds and armed with a motley assortment of weapons, the National Liberation Army (Armée de Libération Nationale-ALN), the military wing of the FLN, had evolved by 1957 into a disciplined fighting force of nearly 40,000 that successfully applied hit-and-run guerrilla warfare tactics. By 1956 France had committed more than 400,000 troops to Algeria. In 1958-59 the French army had won military control in Algeria, but political developments had already overtaken the French army's successes. During that period in France, opposition to the conflict was growing, and international pressure was also building on France to grant Algeria independence.

When Charles De Gaulle became premier of France in June 1958, he was given carte blanche to deal with Algeria. De Gaulle appointed a committee to draft a new constitution for France's Fifth Republic, with which Algeria would be associated but of which it would not form an integral part. Muslims, including women, were registered for the first time with Europeans on a common electoral roll to participate in a referendum to be held on the new constitution in September 1958. Despite threats of reprisal by the FLN, 80 percent of the Muslim electorate turned out to vote in September, and 96 percent of them approved the constitution. In February 1959, de Gaulle was elected president of the new Fifth Republic.

Then, in a September 1959 statement, de Gaulle uttered the words ""self-determination,"" which he envisioned as leading to majority rule in an Algeria formally associated with France. Claiming that de Gaulle had betrayed them, the colons, backed by units of the army, staged an insurrection in Algiers in January 1960 that won mass support in Europe. French forces defused the insurrection. However, in April 1961 important elements of the French army joined in another unsuccessful insurrection intended to seize control of Algeria as well as topple the de Gaulle regime. This coup marked the turning point in the official attitude toward the Algerian war. De Gaulle was now prepared to abandon the colons, the group that no previous French government could have written off. Talks with the FLN reopened at Evian in May 1961. In their final form, the Evian Accords allowed the colons equal legal protection with Algerians over a three-year period. At the end of that period, however, Europeans would be obliged to become Algerian citizens or be classified as aliens with the attendant loss of rights. The French electorate approved the Evian Accords by an overwhelming 91 percent vote in a referendum held in June 1962. On July 1, 1962, some 6 million of a total Algerian electorate of 6.5 million cast their ballots in the referendum on independence. The affirmative vote was a nearly unanimous mandate.

Independent Algeria, 1962-Present: 
The creation of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria was formally proclaimed on September 25, 1962. The following day, after being named premier, Ahmed Ben Bella formed a cabinet that linked the leadership of the three power bases-the army, the party, and the government. However, Ben Bella's ambitions and authoritarian tendencies ultimately led the triumvirate to unravel and provoked increasing discontent among Algerians.

The war of national liberation and its aftermath had severely disrupted Algeria's society and economy. In addition to the physical destruction, the exodus of the colons deprived the country of most of its managers, civil servants, engineers, teachers, physicians, and skilled workers. The homeless and displaced numbered in the hundreds of thousands, many suffering from illness, and some 70 percent of the work force was unemployed. The months immediately following independence had witnessed the pell-mell rush of Algerians, their government, and its officials to claim the property and jobs left behind by the Europeans. In the 1963 March Decrees, Ben Bella declared that all agricultural, industrial, and commercial properties previously owned and operated by Europeans were vacant, thereby legalizing confiscation by the state.

A new constitution drawn up under close FLN supervision was approved by nationwide referendum in September 1963, and Ben Bella was confirmed as the party's choice to lead the country for a five-year term. Under the new constitution, Ben Bella as president combined the functions of chief of state and head of government with those of supreme commander of the armed forces. He formed his government with no need for legislative approval and was solely responsible for the definition and direction of its policies. Essentially, he had no effective institutional check on his powers.

Opposition leader Hosine Ait-Ahmed quit the National Assembly in 1963 to protest the increasingly dictatorial tendencies of the regime and formed a clandestine resistance movement, the Front of Socialist Forces (Front des Forces Socialistes-FFS) dedicated to overthrowing the Ben Bella regime by force. Late summer 1963 saw sporadic incidents attributed to the FFS. More serious fighting broke out a year later. The army moved quickly and in force to crush the rebellion. As minister of defense, Houari Boumediene had no qualms about sending the army to put down regional uprisings because he felt they posed a threat to the state. However, when Ben Bella attempted to co-opt allies from among some of those regionalists, tensions increased between Boumediene and Ben Bella. On June 19, 1965, Boumediene deposed Ben Bella in a military coup d'état that was both swift and bloodless.

Boumediene immediately dissolved the National Assembly and suspended the 1963 constitution. Political power resided in the Council of the Revolution, a predominantly military body intended to foster cooperation among various factions in the army and the party. Boumediene's position as head of government and head of state was not secure initially, but following attempted coups and a failed assassination attempt in 1967-68, Boumediene succeeded in consolidating power. Eleven years after he took power and after much public debate, a long-promised new constitution was promulgated in November 1976, and Boumediene was elected president with a 95 percent majority.

Boumediene's death on December 27, 1978, set off a struggle within the FLN to choose a successor. As a compromise to break a deadlock between two other candidates, Colonel Chadli Bendjedid, a moderate who had collaborated with Boumediene in deposing Ben Bella, was sworn in on February 9, 1979 (and subsequently reelected in 1984 and 1988). In June 1980, he summoned an extraordinary FLN Party Congress to produce a five-year plan to liberalize the economy and break up unwieldy state corporations. However, reform efforts failed to end high unemployment and other economic hardships, all of which fueled Islamist activism. The alienation and anger of the population were fanned by the widespread perception that the government had become corrupt and aloof. The waves of discontent crested in October 1988, when a series of strikes and walkouts by students and workers in Algiers degenerated into rioting. In response, the government declared a state of emergency and used force to quell the unrest.
The stringent measures used to put down the riots of “Black October” engendered a groundswell of outrage. In response, Benjedid conducted a house cleaning of senior officials and drew up a program of political reform. A new constitution, approved overwhelmingly in February 1989, dropped the word socialist from the official description of the country; guaranteed freedoms of expression, association, and meeting; but withdrew the guarantees of women's rights that had appeared in the 1976 constitution. The FLN was not mentioned in the document at all, and the army was discussed only in the context of national defense. The new laws reinvigorated politics. Newspapers became the liveliest and freest in the Arab world, while political parties of nearly every stripe vied for members and a voice. In February 1989, the Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut-FIS) was founded.

Algeria's leaders were stunned in December 1991 when FIS candidates won absolute majorities in 188 of 430 electoral districts, far ahead of the FLN's 15 seats, in the first round of legislative elections. Faced with the possibility of a complete FIS takeover and under pressure from the military leadership, Benjadid dissolved parliament and then resigned in January 1992. He was succeeded by the five-member High Council of State, which canceled the second round of elections. The FIS, as well as the FLN, clamored for a return of the electoral process, but police and troops countered with massive arrests. In February 1992, violent demonstrations erupted in many cities. The government declared a one-year state of emergency and banned the FIS. The voiding of the 1991 election results led to a period of civil conflict that cost the lives of as many as 150,000 people. Periodic negotiations between the military government and Islamist rebels failed to produce a settlement.

In 1996 a referendum passed that introduced changes to the constitution enhancing presidential powers and banning Islamist parties. Presidential elections were held in April 1999. Although seven candidates qualified for election, all but Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who appeared to have the support of the military as well as the FLN, withdrew on the eve of the election amid charges of electoral fraud. Bouteflika went on to win 70 percent of the votes. Following his election to a five-year term, Bouteflika concentrated on restoring security and stability to the strife-ridden country. As part of his endeavor, he successfully campaigned to grant amnesty to thousands of members of the banned FIS. The so-called Civil Concord was approved in a nationwide referendum in September 2000. The reconciliation by no means ended all violence, but it reduced violence to manageable levels. An estimated 80 percent of those fighting the regime accepted the amnesty offer. The president also formed national commissions to study reforms of the education system, judiciary, and state bureaucracy. President Bouteflika was rewarded for his efforts at stabilizing the country when he was elected to another five-year term in April 2004, in an election contested by six candidates without military interference. In September 2005, another referendum-this one to consider a proposed Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation-passed by an overwhelming margin. The charter coupled another amnesty offer to all but the most violent participants in the Islamist uprising with an implicit pardon for security forces accused of abuses in fighting the rebels.