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Ait Ben Haddou and Oasis of Fint

Field Study Morocco

Excursion Ait Ben Haddou and Oasis of Fint
Ouarzazate, Morocco, Africa
Rate Average 123.46 USD Our knowledge of the region (we have lived for generations in the oasis of Fint) and our experience in tourism activities allow us to guarantee exceptional and authentic experiences. More than just visits, we offer visitors an exchange with the people of the village, explanations on the way of life in South Morocco and a real immersion in Berber culture to offer them unforgettable moments. Departure Point Traveler pickup is offered We will pick you up at your hotel or at the airport in Ouarzazate. Airports Ouarzazate Airport, Ouarzazate Morocco Itinerary Stop At: Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou Visit of the Kasbah, discovery of the village and meeting with its inhabitants. Duration: 2 hours Admission Ticket Included Stop At: Oasis Fint Visit in the Oasis of Fint with a discovery of fauna and flora, crops, irrigation systems and meeting with the inhabitants of the village Duration: 2 hours Admission Ticket Included

The Sahara Desert and Imperial Cities
Casablanca, Morocco, Africa
Rate Average 1,939.22 USD You will discover some hidden treasures of Morcocco that go beyond the usual touristic routes that are unique by their atuthenticity and natural beauty. You can expect to see the wonders of the desert and cities of Morocco with a private guide that is very funny, responsible and kind and that I am sure will become your friend. Our guide will accompany you during all the journey, and he has a profound knowledge of his country and culture, which he will share with you and even surprise you with the opportunity of seeing and experiencing the true and genuine Morocco, that which is not so touristic... always in the utmost safety. He speaks fluently English, as well as French and some Spanish. The accommodations all have a typical Moroccan decoration and possess great quality and charm. Our cars are comfortable, new and all have an official license for tourism granted by the government of Morocco, and thus they have an insurance which extends to our travelers as well. Departure Point Casablanca, Morocco Iremos buscar ao aeroporto de Casablanca ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Departure Time 8:00 AM Departure Point Rabat, Morocco Iremos buscar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Departure Time 8:00 AM Departure Point Marrakesh, Morocco Iremos buscar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Departure Time 8:00 AM Departure Point Tangier, Morocco Iremos buscar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Departure Time 8:00 AM Departure Point Errachidia, Morocco Iremos buscar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Departure Time 8:00 AM Departure Point Fes, Morocco Iremos buscar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Departure Time 8:00 AM Return Details Casablanca, Morocco Iremos levar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Return Details Marrakesh, Morocco Iremos levar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Return Details Rabat, Morocco Iremos levar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Return Details Tangier, Morocco Iremos levar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Return Details Fes, Morocco Iremos levar ao aeroporto ou a outro local que o cliente indicar Return Details Errachidia, Morocco Itinerary Stop At: Siroco Tours Day 1: Transfer from the airport of arrival (any in Morocco is available) and welcome into the country by our friendly guide. Since this tour is circular, any point or arrival and departure is possible. The order of the visits might change, but the overall activites and places to visit will be the same. All with the quality provided by SirocoTours Duration: 3 hours Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Hassan Tower Day 1& 2: Rabat is a city that grew up in the fourteenth and fifteenth century, with the expulsion of Andalusians from the Iberian Peninsula. It is surrounded by three walls corresponding to the most significant stages of its history: the Almohad wall, the Andalusian wall and the Alawite wall. Your guide will show you these walls and the main attractions of the city like the Hassan Tower, situated on top of an imposing mosque and the opulent tomb of Mohammed V, etc. Duration: 3 hours Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Chefchaouen Medina Day 2 & 3 Head towards the blue city of Chefchaouen. To arrive at Chefchaouen is to dive into a labyrinth of that is unlike other Moroccan medinas, it has a perfect order and harmony. All roads lead to Hamman Square, where it is the largest mosque and meeting center of its inhabitants. Explore the blue city of Chefchaouen - one of the most charming and emblematic of Morocco. With a calm Medina, nestling between the Rif mountains and the Middle Atlas, Chefchaouen is famous for its handicrafts and goat's cheese. Duration: 1 day Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Meknes Medina Day 3: Sultan Moulay Ismail dreamed of making Meknes the most splendid of the cities of North Africa, hence its nickname of "Versailles of the Maghreb". Here we will visit the main points of interest with a professional guide which will tell you the rich stories and legends of Mecknès and present the city. Duration: 2 hours Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Volubilis Day 3: We can visit the roman ruins of Volubilis, one of the best preserved roman sites of the world. For a long time, Volubilis was the principal roman administration center in the North Africa outside of Egipt. Duration: 2 hours Admission Ticket Included Stop At: Hassan II Mosque Day 1: Guided visit of the Hassan II mosque. The visit is available in many different languages and it is done by a mosque's guide. The Hassan II Mosque is the second highest in the world, and one rare example of mosques that can be visited by non-muslims. In the mosque your guide will teach you about the religious traditions and rituals of the muslim religion. In the words of the authors of the book Morocco Country Study Guide, the Hassan II Mosque "undeniably marks the continuity of a modernized ancestral art and bears the sign of innovations that are due not only to technical reasons but also to a fertile exploration of new aesthetic possibilities". Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Included Stop At: Musee des Sources de Lalla Mimouna Dya 5 & 6: We will cross the huge fertile Ziz Valley, one of the world's largest oasis, where we will stop to snack and nibble the dates grown here, unique in the world for their size and flavor. You will be warmly received here, as only Moroccans can. Being a host is an ancient art with deep cultural roots in Morocco. Duration: 1 day Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Merzouga Desert Day 6 & 7: Arrive in Merzouga, you can enjoy a traditional Moroccan tea as a welcome sign of affection. For the ones who crave adventure, you can do activities like scavenger hunts and other challenges with these 4x4 quad bikes in the great dunes of the desert. The ride can be between 2 to 6 hours and you can explore the dunes beyond what a jeep reaches and the deep desert. The colors of the late afternoon in the dunes are the delight of those who enjoy photography. Enjoy watching the sunset at the top of a dune Then you can have an unforgettable night under a blanket of stars in the sky. There, dinner will be served and then there will be traditional live music around a bonfire. And then the silence of the night will fall and you won't hear anything besides your own voice or your companions'. Duration: 1 day Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Medina of Fez Day 3, 4 & 5: Spend the morning and part of the afternoon visiting medina de Fes, described by Paul Bowles as "an enchanted labyrinth protected from time”. You will be with a guide specifically dedicated to this city, so that you can discover it deeply: its corners, traditions, stories and history. You will be able to visit the most important palaces, the jewish quarters, the Madrassa (old school and university from the 13th century) and the coranic school. Furthermore, you will visit the authentic handicraft of Fes and its tannery, work of leathers. It is possible to buy fantastic leather products very cheaply and near the origin of production, where ancient methods are still used Duration: 2 days Admission Ticket Included Stop At: Taourirt Kasbah Day 8: In Ouarzazate you can discover the ancient wall, the fortification of Kasba Taouirt and the palace of the Pasha Glaoui. You can visit the movie studios of Ouarzazate, which are the most important in North Africa, that have been used in films such as the famous "Lawrence of Arabia" or "Gladiator". Duration: 3 hours Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou Day 8: Ait Benhaddou is considered a World Heritage Place by UNESCO and it is the most important point in the "Route of the One Thousand Kasbahs", a route of small fortifications that would allow the defense of the caravans of trade on its route between the Sahara Desert and the city of Marrakesh. It is still inhabited and used as a set to movies as "Gladiator" and "Game of Thrones", among many others, to keep their identity and charisma intact. Duration: 3 hours Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Gargantas del Todra Day 7: Explore the gorges of Todra, towering rock cliffs that reach 600 meters in height, separated by only 10 m in width and that extend through several kilometers. Duration: 2 hours Admission Ticket Free Pass By: Siroco Tours Day 10: Transfer to the airport of departure, where we say goodbye with certainty to have made new friends and have unforgettable experiences and memories. Stop At: Jemaa el-Fnaa Day 8, 9 & 10: On this day, we will visit Marrakech, the peal of the South, and the cosmopolitan centre of the country. The surprising architecture, the intense scent of spices, the colorful and exotic atmosphere, and the small corners and secrets of its history make this city the most desired and visited city of Morocco. During the day you will be accompanied by a touristic guide/historian exclusively dedicated to the city of Marrakech, so that you can enjoy the best the city has to offer. Duration: 2 days Admission Ticket Included

One night camel trekking in Merzouga Desert and Luxury Camp
Merzouga, Morocco, Africa
Rate Average 68.10 USD In the afternoon we will be waiting for you . when you get arrived we will show you where you leave your car then you prepared to spend the night in the luxury camp. the Camels will pick up you to the Camp after crossing the sand duns , you will stop for a lovely sunset and then countine to the Camp. Than you will have a cup of Tea. 1 Nights in Sahara Desert Merzouga. After the dinner you will enjoy the music with our Berber Team( it is possible to try the Berber Drums) .when you done with a music you can have a wolk around the Camp to enjoy the Stars. Early morning , you will wake up for the sunrise. then you enjoy your Breakfast then you can start the Camels back to Merzouga where the tour end we will make sure to make your dream to come true Departure Point Merzouga 52202, Morocco This is where we meet you and where can leave your car And it is not our Hotel. If you go here just tell them we have Reservation with ( Hassan or Lahcen ) Me or my brother will come to you later to take you to the Camel it start in the Meeting point Departure Time 4:00 PM Return Details Returns to original departure point Itinerary Stop At: Merzouga Desert We will meet you in the meet point then you will take dromedary, experience how the Bedouin have travelled for centuries through the desert. During the one-hour journey, you will have time to take incredible photos of the sun setting over the golden coloured dunes of the Erg Chebbi. Once you get to the desert camp, sit back while you sip on a Moroccan mint tea. Then, before you enjoy a delicious dinner, you will have time to explore the nearby dunes by foot to enjoy the striking landscape. After sampling a filling Moroccan dinner, you'll enjoy a performance of traditional Berber drum music. Day 2 After a restful night under the star-studded desert sky, it won’t be hard to wake up at dawn to marvel at an incredible sunrise over the differently shaped sand mounds. Then sample a healthy breakfast and have a refreshing shower before hopping on your camel to travel back to Merzouga. Duration: 12 minutes Admission Ticket Included Pass By: Erg Chebbi Dunes camel ride back to the meeting point after the Night Pass By: Moroccan Sahara Camel trekking in merzouga desert Pass By: Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou The tour to the desert with camel and overnight in berber Camp Pass By: Gargantas del Todra Overnight in Merzouga desert Pass By: The Lake of Merzouga Sahara camel ride Stop At: Merzouga Desert Program for 1 night in Merzouga Desert Camp and Camel Trek: This camel trip begins in evening , we organise the camel ride for the night in desert and you will enjoy 1 hour camel ride to get the comfortable desert camp in middle of desert. The camels will be packed with foods, blankets. We will spend the night in the camp between the sand dunes of Erg Chebbi desert, This is a great opportunity to take lovely pictures of the sunset and sunrise , when we arrive at the camp we walk to the high dunes of Erg Chebbi to see the sunset , It will be a magical night when the sky is clear and stars shine with intensity. In the night you will have tasty dinner with Berber music and we will spend the night in nomad tents. In the morning you will walk up to the dunes to watch the sunrise ,after that you come back to the tents for breakfast and later we will ride the camels back to hotel to take shower relax ! Duration: 12 minutes Admission Ticket Included 

Agadir day trip to Essaouira
Agadir, Morocco, Africa
Rate Average 57.14 USD Explore Morocco’s historical seaside town of Essaouira in a day, without worrying about cabs or buses, on a trip from Agadir. Travel through the Atlas foothills and Berber villages to the old port, and tour the Portuguese-built ramparts of the Skala, and the Kasbah, port, and market. Plus, shop and stroll in the UNESCO-listed medina, with its cafes and handicraft shops. Hotel pickup and drop-off are included for convenience. Discover the old port city of Essaouira on a day trip from Agadir Visit the historical town with ease, without the stresses of a DIY trip Tour the Skala ramparts and port; and roam around the shop-filled medina Visit an argan oil factory and relax with included hotel pickup and drop-off Departure Point Traveler pickup is offered We pick up from all the hotels in Agadir: 1. Hotel Almoggar Garden Beach, BV Mohamed V, Agadir, Morocco 2. Hotel Sofitel Agadir Royal Bay Resort, Agadir, Morocco 3. Royal Mirage Agadir Hotel, Boulevard Mohammed V, Agadir, Morocco 4. Khalij Agadir Hotel & SPA, Secteur Balneaire, Agadir, Morocco 5. Tildi Hotel & SPA, Rue Hubert Giraud, Agadir, Morocco 6. Oasis Hotel & Spa, Rue Granada, Agadir, Morocco 7. Suite Hotel Tilila, Avenue General Kettani, Agadir, Morocco 8. La Suite Hotel Boutique, Founty Zone Touristique, Agadir, Morocco 9. Caribbean Village Agador, Boulevard du 20 Aout, Agadir, Morocco 10. Kenzi Europa, Boulevard du 20 aout BP 808, Agadir, Morocco 11. Allegro Agadir, Boulevard du 20 Aout, Agadir, Morocco 12. Omega Hotel, G11 Lotissement Sonaba, Agadir, Morocco 13. Atlas Amadil Beach Aqua Sun, Chemin des Dunes, Agadir, Morocco 14. Les Dunes d'Or, Agadir, Morocco 15. Hotel Riu Palace Tikida Agadir, Chemin des Dunes, Agadir, Morocco 16. Iberostar Founty Beach, City Founty B.P 1039, Agadir, Morocco 17. Royal Decameron Tafoukt Beach Hotel, Boulevard du 20 Aout, Agadir, Morocco 18. Argana Hotel, Boulevard Mohamed V B.P 93, Agadir, Morocco 19. Palais des Roses, Secteur Touristique et Balneaire, Cite Founty, Agadir, Morocco 20. Hotel Sud Bahia, Rue des Administrations Publiques, Agadir, Morocco 21. Hotel Sofitel Agadir Thalassa Sea & Spa, Baie des Palmiers, Agadir, Morocco 22. Hotel Timoulay & Spa Agadir, Cite Founty F6 Baie des Palmiers, Agadir, Morocco 23. Residence Agyad, Secteur Balneaire Et Touristique Cite Founty, Agadir, Morocco 24. Riad Les Chtis D'Agadir, 27 Rue Houmane El Fetouaki, Agadir, Morocco 25. Residence Yasmina Agadir, Rue de la Jeunesse, Agadir, Morocco 26. Residence Fleurie, Rue de la Foire, Agadir, Morocco 27. Aferni Hotel, Avenue du General Kettani 80000 Agadir Morocco, Agadir, Morocco 28. The Atlantic Hotel, Avenue Hassan II, Agadir, Morocco 29. Hotel Agadir Beach Club, Rue Oued Sous, Agadir, Morocco 30. Riad Villa Blanche, 50 Baie des Palmiers secteur, Agadir, Morocco 31. Hotel Riu Tikida Beach, Chemin des Dunes BP 901, Agadir, Morocco 32. Ibis Budget Agadir, Commune Urbaine d'Agadir Zone d'Extension, Agadir, Morocco 33. Ibis Agadir, Rue Abderrahim Bouabid, Agadir, Morocco 34. Hotel Riu Tikida Dunas, Chemin des Dunes B.P. 901, Agadir, Morocco 37. Residence INTOURISTE Aparthotel, Lot G9 Founty, Agadir, Morocco 39. Ryad Mogador Al Madina, Blvd du 20 Aout, secteur Balneaire, Agadir, Morocco 40. New Farah Hotel, Rue de la Foire, Agadir, Morocco 41. Studiotel Afoud, Rue de la foire, Agadir, Morocco 42. Anezi Tower Hotel, Mohammed B.P 29, Agadir, Morocco 43. Residence Hoteliere Rofaida, Secteur H, Parcelle N 3 , Founty, Agadir, Morocco 44. Hotel Royal Agadir, Avenue Mohamed 5, Agadir, Morocco 45. Club Marmara Les Jardins d’Agadir, Rue Oued Souss, Agadir, Morocco 46. Club Med Agadir, Route de l'Oued Sous, Agadir, Morocco 47. Golden Beach Appart-Hotel, Lot. No 3 Secteur C, Agadir, Morocco 48. Residence Amwaj, Rue de la Foire, Agadir, Morocco 49. Les Amicales Agadir Morocco, Apartment 9 Imm 79, GH20 B, Essaada 2, Agadir, Morocco 50. Sahara Hotel, Blvd Mohammed V, Agadir, Morocco 51. Dar Maktoub, Avenue Moulay Ali Cherif, Inezgane, Morocco 52. Bianca Beach Family & Resort, Marina d'Agadir, Agadir, Morocco 53. Sofitel Agadir Royal Bay, Baie des palmiers, BP 226, Agadir, Morocco 54. Appart-hotel Founty Beach, Lot A8 SONABA Founty, Agadir, Morocco 55. Robinson Club Agadir, Chemin des Dunes, Agadir, Morocco 56. Hôtel RIU Tikida Dunas 57. Hotel Iberostar Founty Beach Ports Agadir Cruise Port Departure Time 7:30 AM Itinerary Stop At: Medina of Essaouira Free Time in Essaouira To discover the place Duration: 4 hours Admission Ticket Included Pass By: Taghazout Passing by Taghazout and the along the Atlantic ocean. Stop At: Tamanar Coffee break & rest room break in Tmanar Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Smimou Goats on the tree stop close to Smimou Duration: 15 minutes Admission Ticket Free

Merzouga Overnight desert camp & Camel Trek
Merzouga, Morocco, Africa
Rate Average 60.36 USD Our Overnight Camel Trekking Merzouga is an authentic trip that will take you to experience the Berber lifestyle including Camel riding, Sandboarding, Private tent, Dinner, Breakfast, Berber Music around Campfire and much more. Departure Point Merzouga, few meters from the post office، Merzouga 52202, Morocco Departure Time 4:00 PM Return Details Merzouga, few meters from the post office، Merzouga 52202, Morocco Itinerary Stop At: Erg Chebbi You'll ride the camel into the sand dunes of Erg-Chebbi and you'll spend the night in our desert camp where you'll have a private Berber tent. Our Overnight Camel Trekking Merzouga is one of the most popular trips in Merzouga that's allow you to see the Sunset and Sunrise in the desert and spend a magical night in the desert. Duration: 3 hours Admission Ticket Free

Think Tanks
Data Wikipedia
Prehistory and antiquity The area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since at least Paleolithic times, beginning sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC.[23] A recent publication has suggested that there is evidence for even earlier human habitation of the area: Homo sapiens fossils that had been discovered in the late 2000s near the Atlantic coast in Jebel Irhoud were recently dated to roughly 315,000 years ago.[24] During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, resembling a savanna, in contrast to its modern arid landscape.[25] Twenty-two thousand years ago, the pre-existing Aterian culture was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the human remains found at Iberomaurusian ""Mechta-Afalou"" burial sites and European Cro-Magnon remains. The Iberomaurusian culture was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco. Mitochondrial DNA studies have discovered a close ancestral link between Berbers and the Saami of Scandinavia. This evidence supports the theory that some of the peoples who had been living in the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe during the late-glacial period migrated to northern Europe, contributing to its repopulation after the last ice age.[26] In the early part of the Classical Antiquity period, Northwest Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by the Phoenicians, who established trading colonies and settlements there, the most substantial of which were Chellah, Lixus, and Mogador.[27] Mogador was established as a Phoenician colony as early as the 6th century BC.[28][page needed] Morocco later became a realm of the Northwest African civilisation of ancient Carthage, and part of the Carthaginian empire. The earliest known independent Moroccan state was the Berber kingdom of Mauretania, under King Baga.[29] This ancient kingdom (not to be confused with the modern state of Mauritania) flourished Foundation and early Islamic era The Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, which started in the middle of the 7th century, was achieved by the Umayyad Caliphate early into the following century. It brought both the Arabic language and Islam to the area. Although part of the larger Islamic Empire, Morocco was initially organized as a subsidiary province of Ifriqiya, with the local governors appointed by the Muslim governor in Kairouan.[30] The indigenous Berber tribes adopted Islam, but retained their customary laws. They also paid taxes and tribute to the new Muslim administration.[31] The first independent Muslim state in the area of modern Morocco was the Kingdom of Nekor, an emirate in the Rif Mountains. It was founded by Salih I ibn Mansur in 710, as a client state to the Umayyad Caliphate. After the outbreak of the Berber Revolt in 739, the Berbers formed other independent states such as the Miknasa of Sijilmasa and the Barghawata. According to medieval legend, Idris ibn Abdallah had fled to Morocco after the Abbasids' massacre of his tribe in Iraq. He convinced the Awraba Berber tribes to break their allegiance to the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and he founded the Idrisid dynasty in 788. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of Muslim learning and a major regional power. The Idrissids were ousted in 927 by the Fatimid Caliphate and their Miknasa allies. After Miknasa broke off relations with the Fatimids in 932, they were removed from power by the Maghrawa of Sijilmasa in 980. Dynasties From the 11th century onwards, a series of Berber dynasties arose.[32][33][34] Under the Sanhaja Almoravid dynasty and the Masmuda Almohad dynasty,[35] Morocco dominated the Maghreb, al-Andalus in Iberia, and the western Mediterranean region. From the 13th century onwards the country saw a massive migration of the Banu Hilal Arab tribes. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Merinids held power in Morocco and strove to replicate the successes of the Almohads through military campaigns in Algeria and Spain. They were followed by the Wattasids. In the 15th century, the Reconquista ended Muslim rule in Iberia and many Muslims and Jews fled to Morocco.[36] Portuguese efforts to control the Atlantic sea trade in the 15th century did not greatly affect the interior of Morocco even though they managed to control some possessions on the Moroccan coast but not venturing further afield inland. Early modern period The Portuguese Empire was founded when Prince Henry the Navigator led the Conquest of Ceuta, which began the Portuguese presence in Morocco, lasting from 1415 to 1769. In 1549, the region fell to successive Arab dynasties claiming descent from the Islamic prophet, Muhammad: first the Saadi dynasty who ruled from 1549 to 1659, and then the Alaouite dynasty, who remain in power since the 17th century. The remains of the Saadi Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur's 16th century Badii' Palace. Under the Saadi dynasty, the country ended the Aviz dynasty of Portugal at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578. The reign of Ahmad al-Mansur brought new wealth and prestige to the Sultanate, and a large expedition to West Africa inflicted a crushing defeat on the Songhay Empire in 1591. However, managing the territories across the Sahara proved too difficult. After the death of al-Mansur, the country was divided among his sons. In 1631, Morocco was reunited by the Alaouite dynasty, who have been the ruling house of Morocco ever since. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire allies pressing westward. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilising their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it remained quite wealthy. Against the opposition of local tribes Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727) began to create a unified state.[37] With his Jaysh d'Ahl al-Rif (the Riffian Army) he re-occupied Tangier from the English who had abandoned it in 1684 and drove the Spanish from Larache in 1689. Portuguese abandoned Mazagão, their last territory in Morocco, in 1769. However, the Siege of Melilla against the Spanish ended in defeat in 1775. Morocco was the first nation to recognise the fledgling United States as an independent nation in 1777.[38][39][40] In the beginning of the American Revolution, American merchant ships in the Atlantic Ocean were subject to attack by the Barbary pirates. On 20 December 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage. The Moroccan–American Treaty of Friendship, signed in 1786, stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty.[41][42] French and Spanish protectorates: 1912 to 1956 Main articles: French protectorate in Morocco and Spanish Protectorate in Morocco The Treaty of Wad Ras after the Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–1860) bankrupted Morocco's national treasury, forcing the Makhzen to take on a British loan.[43] As Europe industrialised, Northwest Africa was increasingly prized for its potential for colonisation. France showed a strong interest in Morocco as early as 1830, not only to protect the border of its Algerian territory, but also because of the strategic position of Morocco with coasts on the Mediterranean and the open Atlantic.[44] In 1860, a dispute over Spain's Ceuta enclave led Spain to declare war. Victorious Spain won a further enclave and an enlarged Ceuta in the settlement. In 1884, Spain created a protectorate in the coastal areas of Morocco. Tangier's population in 1873 included 40,000 Muslims, 31,000 Europeans and 15,000 Jews.[45] In 1904, France and Spain carved out zones of influence in Morocco. Recognition by the United Kingdom of France's sphere of influence provoked a strong reaction from the German Empire; and a crisis loomed in 1905. The matter was resolved at the Algeciras Conference in 1906. The Agadir Crisis of 1911 increased tensions between European powers. The 1912 Treaty of Fez made Morocco a protectorate of France, and triggered the 1912 Fez riots.[46] Spain continued to operate its coastal protectorate. By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role of protecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones.[47] Tens of thousands of colonists entered Morocco. Some bought up large amounts of rich agricultural land, while others organised the exploitation and modernisation of mines and harbours. Interest groups that formed among these elements continually pressured France to increase its control over Morocco – a control which was also made necessary by the continuous wars among Moroccan tribes, part of which had taken sides with the French since the beginning of the conquest. Governor general Marshall Hubert Lyautey sincerely admired Moroccan culture and succeeded in imposing a joint Moroccan-French administration, while creating a modern school system. Several divisions of Moroccan soldiers (Goumiers or regular troops and officers) served in the French army in both World War I and World War II, and in the Spanish Nationalist Army in the Spanish Civil War and after (Regulares).[48] The institution of slavery was abolished in 1925.[49] Between 1921 and 1926, a Berber uprising in the Rif Mountains, led by Abd el-Krim, led to the establishment of the Republic of the Rif. The Spanish lost more than 13,000 soldiers at Annual in July–August 1921.[50] The rebellion was eventually suppressed by French and Spanish troops. In 1943, the Istiqlal Party (Independence Party) was founded to press for independence, with discreet US support. That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement. France's exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953 to Madagascar and his replacement by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa sparked active opposition to the French and Spanish protectorates. The most notable violence occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets. France allowed Mohammed V to return in 1955, and the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year.[51] In March 1956 the French protectorate was ended and Morocco regained its independence from France as the ""Kingdom of Morocco"". A month later Spain forsook its protectorate in Northern Morocco to the new state but kept its two coastal enclaves (Ceuta and Melilla) on the Mediterranean coast which dated from earlier conquests. Sultan Mohammed became king in 1957. Post-independence The Proclamation of Independence of Morocco of 1944. The Mausoleum of Mohammed V, a modern Alaouite landmark in Rabat. Upon the death of Mohammed V, Hassan II became King of Morocco on 3 March 1961. Morocco held its first general elections in 1963. However, Hassan declared a state of emergency and suspended parliament in 1965. In 1971, there was a failed attempt to depose the king and establish a republic. A truth commission set up in 2005 to investigate human rights abuses during his reign confirmed nearly 10,000 cases, ranging from death in detention to forced exile. Some 592 people were recorded killed during Hassan's rule according to the truth commission. The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south was returned to Morocco in 1969. The Polisario movement was formed in 1973, with the aim of establishing an independent state in the Spanish Sahara. On 6 November 1975, King Hassan asked for volunteers to cross into the Spanish Sahara. Some 350,000 civilians were reported as being involved in the ""Green March"".[52] A month later, Spain agreed to leave the Spanish Sahara, soon to become Western Sahara, and to transfer it to joint Moroccan-Mauritanian control, despite the objections and threats of military intervention by Algeria. Moroccan forces occupied the territory.[36] Moroccan and Algerian troops soon clashed in Western Sahara. Morocco and Mauritania divided up Western Sahara. Fighting between the Moroccan military and Polisario forces continued for many years. The prolonged war was a considerable financial drain on Morocco. In 1983, Hassan cancelled planned elections amid political unrest and economic crisis. In 1984, Morocco left the Organisation of African Unity in protest at the SADR's admission to the body. Polisario claimed to have killed more than 5,000 Moroccan soldiers between 1982 and 1985. Algerian authorities have estimated the number of Sahrawi refugees in Algeria to be 165,000.[53] Diplomatic relations with Algeria were restored in 1988. In 1991, a UN-monitored ceasefire began in Western Sahara, but the territory's status remains undecided and ceasefire violations are reported. The following decade saw much wrangling over a proposed referendum on the future of the territory but the deadlock was not broken. Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997 and Morocco's first opposition-led government came to power in 1998. Protestors in Casablanca demand that authorities honor their promises of political reform. King Hassan II died in 1999 and was succeeded by his son, Mohammed VI. He is a cautious moderniser who has introduced some economic and social liberalisation.[54] Mohammed VI paid a controversial visit to the Western Sahara in 2002. Morocco unveiled an autonomy blueprint for Western Sahara to the United Nations in 2007. The Polisario rejected the plan and put forward its own proposal. Morocco and the Polisario Front held UN-sponsored talks in New York City but failed to come to any agreement. In 2010, security forces stormed a protest camp in the Western Sahara, triggering violent demonstrations in the regional capital El Aaiún. In 2002, Morocco and Spain agreed to a US-brokered resolution over the disputed island of Perejil. Spanish troops had taken the normally uninhabited island after Moroccan soldiers landed on it and set up tents and a flag. There were renewed tensions in 2005, as hundreds of African migrants tried to storm the borders of the Spanish enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta. Morocco deported hundreds of the illegal migrants. In 2006, the Spanish Premier Zapatero visited Spanish enclaves. He was the first Spanish leader in 25 years to make an official visit to the territories. The following year, Spanish King Juan Carlos I visited Ceuta and Melilla, further angering Morocco which demanded control of the enclaves. During the 2011–2012 Moroccan protests, thousands of people rallied in Rabat and other cities calling for political reform and a new constitution curbing the powers of the king. In July 2011, the King won a landslide victory in a referendum on a reformed constitution he had proposed to placate the Arab Spring protests. Despite the reforms made by Mohammed VI, demonstrators continued to call for deeper reforms. Hundreds took part in a trade union rally in Casablanca in May 2012. Participants accused the government of failing to deliver on reforms.


Strategies-et-programmes Strategies and Programs Morocco has adopted in its development strategy the concept of sustainable development that promotes the balance between the environmental, economic and social dimensions, with the objectives of improving the living environment of citizens, strengthening the sustainable management of natural resources and promoting economic activities that respect the environment. In accordance with its commitments at the international level within the framework of the Earth Summits in Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Johannesburg (2002) and the relevant conventions, Morocco has laid the foundations for achieving sustainable development in the country through several political, institutional, legal and socio-economic reforms.This process was reinforced by the adoption of the National Charter for the Environment and Sustainable Development, the elaboration of which was launched following the directives of His Majesty King Mohamed VI, during his Speech from the Throne of 30 July 2009. The concretization of this process has resulted in the process of integrating the principles of sustainable development into sectoral strategies, the implementation of the Environmental Upgrading Strategy (MANE) and the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) Moroccan flora The Moroccan flora has about 7000 known species. Vascular flora is massively represented in forest ecosystems where nearly two-thirds of species live; the remaining third is divided mainly between steppe formations and wet biotopes. The mountainous regions of the Rif and Atlas are the most important sectors in terms of endemism. The argan tree Moroccan forest formations, like Mediterranean forests, are composed of very heterogeneous species, often clear and with very diverse structures. Moroccan flora These formations are mostly state-owned and extend over an area of about 9,038,000 ha, or 12.7% of the national territory. Moroccan forests are made up of natural deciduous forests (Holm Oak, Cork Oak, Tauzin Oak, Argan Tree, Carob Tree, Acacias, ...) and coniferous (Atlas Cedar, Berberian Cedar, Aleppo Pine, Maritime Pine, Black Pine, Thurifer juniper, Red Juniper, ...), distributed between the different bioclimatic floors from semi-arid to humid. cedar La Cédraie occupies the mountain areas in the Middle Atlas and the Rif, Les Chênaies occupy the plains and mountain foothills, while the only Sapinière in Morocco finds refuge in Talasemtane in the altitudes of the Western Rif near Chefchaouen. To the southwest, the Arganeraie occupies semi-arid and arid areas of the Western High Atlas and the Anti-Atlas. Further south, Acacias are pre-steppe and pre-forest climaxes in areas with arid and Saharan bioclimates.