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Topic: Following years of fruitless negotiations, Ethiopia and Egypt say they want to complete a deal on the operations of Africa's largest dam within the next four months.

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After a protracted battle over Africa's largest dam, Egypt and Ethiopia seek to achieve a deal within 4 months.


Following years of fruitless negotiations, Ethiopia and Egypt say they want to complete a deal on the operations of Africa's largest dam within the next four months.
July 14, 2023

Kenyan capital NAIROBI Ethiopia and Egypt said on Thursday that they want to conclude a deal on the operations of Africa's biggest dam within four months, marking an apparent breakthrough in a conflict that Cairo has referred to as an existential danger.
The Ethiopian government released a joint statement on "expedited negotiations" after Abiy Ahmed, the prime minister of Ethiopia, and Abdel Fattah el-Sissi, the president of Egypt, spoke about the project outside of a regional conference regarding the violence in neighboring Sudan.
The $4.6 billion Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on Ethiopia's portion of the Blue Nile, which is situated within 10 kilometers (6 miles) from the Sudanese border, is being discussed with Sudan as a third party.
While Ethiopia claims the dam helps millions of its 110 million residents escape poverty, Egypt depends on the Nile River to provide fresh water to its growing 100 million-person population. As the dam's reservoir started to be filled yearly in the last several years, tensions increased.
The anticipated deal is not described in the new statement as being legally binding, as Egypt and Sudan had requested. Additionally, it is not specified if the African Union will preside over the negotiations, as Ethiopia had wanted. In the past, the United States has participated in a number of mediation efforts.
Moussa Faki Mahamat, the head of the African Union Commission, praised the presidents of Egypt and Ethiopia for their "joint decision" to resume talks on the project in a separate statement.
How the nations would settle any future disagreements about the project and how much water Ethiopia will release downstream in the event of a prolonged drought have been the main topics of discussion.
Source CARA ANNA Associated Press


Following Years of Negotiations: Ethiopia and Egypt Aim to Finalize Deal on Africa's Largest Dam Operations

Essay kompetensimedia Published on July 22, 2023

After years of protracted negotiations, Ethiopia and Egypt have expressed their shared commitment to reach a comprehensive agreement regarding the operations of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) within the next four months. This significant development brings hope for a resolution to one of Africa's most challenging and long-standing disputes.

The GERD: A Symbol of Ethiopian Development
The GERD, located on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia, is Africa's largest dam and a vital infrastructure project for Ethiopia's economic progress. Since construction began in 2011, the dam has been a source of national pride and an integral part of Ethiopia's plans to generate hydropower and boost its economy.

The Dispute: Water Security and Downstream Concerns
However, the GERD's construction has raised concerns downstream in Egypt, which heavily relies on the Nile River for freshwater resources. Egypt fears that the dam's operations could negatively impact its water security and agricultural productivity. Both countries have engaged in negotiations over the years to address these concerns and find a mutually beneficial solution.

Years of Fruitless Negotiations
Despite numerous rounds of talks and mediation efforts involving Ethiopia, Egypt, and Sudan, progress towards a comprehensive agreement has often been slow and challenging. Disagreements over issues such as water allocation, dam filling timelines, and the dispute resolution mechanism have hindered the negotiation process.

A Renewed Commitment to Find Common Ground
In a recent diplomatic breakthrough, Ethiopia and Egypt have expressed their renewed commitment to work towards a comprehensive agreement within the next four months. This positive development comes after high-level talks facilitated by the African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN), highlighting the international community's support for a peaceful resolution.

The Role of Mediation and Diplomacy
Mediation and diplomacy have played a crucial role in facilitating dialogue between the two countries. The AU-led process, known as the Tripartite Negotiation, has provided a platform for all parties to voice their concerns, propose solutions, and work towards a mutually acceptable agreement. The involvement of international mediators has helped build trust and foster a conducive environment for negotiations.

A Win-Win Solution for All Parties
A successful agreement on the operations of the GERD would be a win-win outcome for Ethiopia, Egypt, and Sudan. It would ensure Ethiopia's right to develop its hydropower potential while addressing Egypt's concerns about water security. Additionally, such an agreement would promote regional stability, cooperation, and economic integration, benefiting the entire Nile Basin community.

The Road Ahead: Challenges and Opportunities
While the commitment to finalize a deal within the next four months is a positive step forward, challenges remain. Sensitive issues, such as the annual water release from the dam and mechanisms for resolving disputes, require careful consideration and compromise from all parties involved.

However, this renewed commitment indicates a willingness to find common ground and resolve the long-standing dispute. By capitalizing on this momentum, Ethiopia and Egypt have an opportunity to demonstrate that diplomacy and negotiation can lead to peaceful solutions, setting a positive precedent for resolving similar disputes across the continent.


The recent announcement of Ethiopia and Egypt's shared commitment to complete a comprehensive agreement on the operations of the GERD within the next four months is a significant development. It reflects the progress made in addressing the concerns of both countries and the determination to find a mutually beneficial solution. As negotiations continue, the international community remains hopeful that this long-standing dispute will be resolved, paving the way for cooperation, stability, and sustainable development in the Nile Basin region. 
Government of Kenya Data
Rice Farming in Kenya – Seedling Production
To produce healthy seedlings, the following should be done:-
 Seed selection. Select plump and healthy seeds.
Seed pre-treatment. This is practiced to ensure better germination of seeds and better growth of
seedlings. It involves:

Seed disinfection. Hot water treatment is effective in destroying the nematodes, which cause white tip disease.
Seed soaking. In order to supply the required moisture for germination, shorten the germination period and reduce seed rotting.
Pre-sprouting. The seeds are drained and covered with grass for 24 to 48 hours. This ensures uniform seed germination, avoids over sprouting and allows air circulation for germination.
Rice Farming in Kenya – Sowing
Sowing about 80 to 100 g/m² is normal practice. The seeds are broadcasted uniformly. The nursery bed should not be submerged after sowing and a  seed rate of about 20kg/acre (50kg/ha) should be used.

Rice Farming in Kenya – Seedbed Preparation
Plowing should be done at least 2 weeks before sowing and flooding. Puddle 1 week before sowing and prepare a raised nursery bed. The nursery  bed should be drained the day before sowing to stabilize the surface of the soil.

Rice Farming in Kenya – Main Land Preparation
Under irrigation: Land preparation is carried out by flooding the fields to a depth of 10 cm and then cultivating by the use of a tractor. The land should be tilled and immediately flooded at least 15 days before transplanting or direct sowing. Under rain-fed situation: Land should be plowed twice and harrowed once.

Rice Farming in Kenya – Transplanting
Planting should be before the onset of long rains for rainfed rice. It is important to transplant from the nursery as soon as the seedlings are big enough. Seedlings are said to be ready for transplanting after a period of between 3 to 4 weeks depending on daylight, temperatures, and the variety.

Rice Farming in Kenya – Spacing
Seedlings are spaced according to the tillering ability of a variety.

Rice Farming in Kenya – Seedling Rate
Two to three seedlings for low tillering varieties.  one to two seedlings per hill are more suitable for good rooting and tillering. Higher seeding rates increase competition for the available nutrients hence should be discouraged.

Rice Farming in Kenya – Planting Depth
Practice shallow planting of about 3 cm depth for vigorous initial growth and will result in good rooting and tillering. Deep transplanting delays and reduces tillering resulting in non-uniform crop growth and ripening, resulting in yield losses. Seedlings should be transplanted in an upright position to allow correct tillering and rooting.

Rice Farming in Kenya – Main field water management
Water is applied to the rice field for the use of the rice plant and also for suppressing weed growth. For this reason, it is important to practice appropriate water management throughout the growing period of a rice crop. In lowland rice fields, water comes from rainfall and irrigation. Water is lost by transpiration, evaporation, seepage, and percolation. Prevent water loss by:

Repairing levees to minimize seepage.
Removal of weeds to avoid competition with rice plants for water.
Increasing the height of levees to prevent surface run-off water.
Rice Farming in Kenya – Pests and Diseases
Rice Diseases
Three Major Rice Diseases:

Rice yellow mottle virus  transmitted by beetles

Rice Pests
Main pests in rice include:-
• Stem Borers
• Leaf Miners
• Root Cutting Insects
Rice Farming in Kenya – Pests and Disease Control
Cultural methods
Clean seed
Crop rotation
Field hygiene
Biological control
Rice Farming in Kenya – Harvesting
Time from planting to harvest varies between 4 to 6 months. Rice is cut, swathed, threshed, winnowed and dried.

Rice Farming in Kenya – Storage
Rice should be stored in warehouses with good circulation of air, with no contamination of dust and water.

Strategies-et-programmes Strategies and Programs Morocco has adopted in its development strategy the concept of sustainable development that promotes the balance between the environmental, economic and social dimensions, with the objectives of improving the living environment of citizens, strengthening the sustainable management of natural resources and promoting economic activities that respect the environment. In accordance with its commitments at the international level within the framework of the Earth Summits in Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Johannesburg (2002) and the relevant conventions, Morocco has laid the foundations for achieving sustainable development in the country through several political, institutional, legal and socio-economic reforms.This process was reinforced by the adoption of the National Charter for the Environment and Sustainable Development, the elaboration of which was launched following the directives of His Majesty King Mohamed VI, during his Speech from the Throne of 30 July 2009. The concretization of this process has resulted in the process of integrating the principles of sustainable development into sectoral strategies, the implementation of the Environmental Upgrading Strategy (MANE) and the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) Moroccan flora The Moroccan flora has about 7000 known species. Vascular flora is massively represented in forest ecosystems where nearly two-thirds of species live; the remaining third is divided mainly between steppe formations and wet biotopes. The mountainous regions of the Rif and Atlas are the most important sectors in terms of endemism. The argan tree Moroccan forest formations, like Mediterranean forests, are composed of very heterogeneous species, often clear and with very diverse structures. Moroccan flora These formations are mostly state-owned and extend over an area of about 9,038,000 ha, or 12.7% of the national territory. Moroccan forests are made up of natural deciduous forests (Holm Oak, Cork Oak, Tauzin Oak, Argan Tree, Carob Tree, Acacias, ...) and coniferous (Atlas Cedar, Berberian Cedar, Aleppo Pine, Maritime Pine, Black Pine, Thurifer juniper, Red Juniper, ...), distributed between the different bioclimatic floors from semi-arid to humid. cedar La Cédraie occupies the mountain areas in the Middle Atlas and the Rif, Les Chênaies occupy the plains and mountain foothills, while the only Sapinière in Morocco finds refuge in Talasemtane in the altitudes of the Western Rif near Chefchaouen. To the southwest, the Arganeraie occupies semi-arid and arid areas of the Western High Atlas and the Anti-Atlas. Further south, Acacias are pre-steppe and pre-forest climaxes in areas with arid and Saharan bioclimates.