Southeast Asia Stories, Environment and Natural Resources - Media kompetensi



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Southeast Asia Stories, Environment and Natural Resources

Indonesia is a large and diverse country that is home to a wide range of different environments, flora, and fauna. Covering a total land area of 1,919,440 square kilometers and with a population of over 260 million people, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. Indonesia's varied geography and climate has led to a rich and diverse ecosystem that is home to a wide variety of different plants and animals.
Indonesia is composed of more than 17,000 islands, and as a result, it has a variety of different climates and ecosystems. The country is home to some of the most unique and biodiverse rainforests in the world, such as the heavily forested area of Sumatra. These rainforests are home to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including endemic species such as the Sumatran tiger and orangutan. Other areas of Indonesia are home to different ecosystems, such as the mangrove forests of Kalimantan and the coral reefs of the Maluku Islands.

Indonesia is also home to a wide variety of different plants. Many of these plants are endemic to the country and can only be found in Indonesia. Some of the more common plants found in Indonesia include the rafflesia, a giant flower which can reach up to three meters in diameter, and the cempedak, a fruit similar to jackfruit. Other plants found in Indonesia include the jasmine, hibiscus, and many different species of orchids.

Indonesia is also home to a wide variety of different animals. These include the well-known Komodo dragon, as well as the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Bornean orangutan, and the Sulawesi macaque. Indonesia is also home to a wide variety of birds, including the black-winged myna, the peacock-pheasant, and the Javan hawk-eagle. Among the reptiles found in Indonesia are the Komodo dragon, the green sea turtle, and the reticulated python.

In conclusion, Indonesia is a country of immense biodiversity that is home to a wide variety of different environments, flora, and fauna. From the rainforests of Sumatra to the coral reefs of the Maluku Islands, Indonesia is a unique and beautiful place that is home to a wide variety of different species. With its variety of climates and ecosystems, Indonesia is a great place to explore the natural world and to witness the incredible biodiversity of this amazing country.
Bali - Indonesia

Barong Brutuk

Barong Brutuk Barong Brutuk is a traditional art of heritage which still preserve until now in the village of Trunyan, Kintamani. As the culture and tradition which is possessed by the inhabitant of Trunyan village, this place becomes the unique tourist destination. In addition, the Trunyan village has  an ancient art known as Barong Brutuk even the ancient art is predicated has existed previous coming in effect of Hindu to Bali.

It is not all of people recognize the ancient art of Barong Brutuk which is inherited from generation to generation by ancestor of local people. Barong Brutuk is very ancient dance of barong and only exist in the village of Trunyan from hundreds years ago inhabited by the original of Balinese people. This dance describes the life of ancestors in the old time.

In fact, the island of Bali is not only offering the beautiful nature of tourist objects, however, its culture and tradition in some places can be the main attraction. Bali is actually rich due to the culture and tradition, therefore, it becomes the central attraction for foreigners who spending time to the island of Gods of Bali.
Location : Trunyan Village, District of Kintamani, Bangli Regency
Kalimantan - Indonesia

Time Dimension Toll Gate

Time Dimension Toll Gate
Map of the Dutch Age entitled "Kaart van de Kust-en Binnenlanden van Banjermassing behoorende tot de Reize in het zuidelijke gedeelte van Borneo" by German naturalist Salomon Muller in 1845. Muller was a member of the des Genootschaps en Natuurkundige Komissie in Nederlands Indie or Forestry Service Dutch East Indies. Writes an area called Tandjong Sarandjana, administratively at the present time the area is in the Kotabaru Regency, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Community trust
The belief of the local community, the area or the magical city can only be visited by smart people who understand wisdom or the occult. Because looking for it on a modern map of Indonesia, the city does not exist. Although there are many writings that describe the city, even though it is not listed on modern maps. The city, called Saranjaya City, is believed to be located in the southern part of the island, precisely in Oka-Oka Village, Pulau Laut District, Kotabaru, South Kalimantan.

History of Kotabaru
In the period before the entry of Islam, the Dayak tribes who inhabited Kotabaru still adhered to animist beliefs, they lived in groups. It is estimated that the existence of Saranjana City in the territory of the Samihim Dayak tribe, before 1660. Based on the records of historian Goh Yoon Fong who stated that Laut Island was a gift or land of apanage. This gift was given by the Sultanate of Banjar to Prince Purabaya as a tribute and reward for peace. Previously, Banjar nobles had appointed Raden Bagus the Sultan of Banjar who ruled from 1660 to 1663.
In terms of terminology, if the Indian vocabulary, namely Saranjana, means land that is given.

Cultural Notes
Oral sources through the songs of the Maanyan people that their kingdom is Nan Sarunai
The Maanyan people were expelled and fled to a number of places in Kalimantan, including the Samihim Dayak who lived in several places including Pulau Laut or the area where the city of Saranjaya was thought to be located.
Historically, there are songs from the Maanyan Dayak community that are believed to have a connection with an event experienced by the Maanyan Dayak tribe in ancient times. The song tinga janyawai is in touch with folklore, namely the separation of the Nansarunai people on the banks of the Tabalong river. Laisomena's song is a song that contains songs telling the sadness of being left by her grandson named Laisomena. Maybe it was his promise to go abroad so that his grandmother didn't know where he was going.
The seventh stanza of the song Tinga janyawai with a Hermeneutic Approach contains expressions regarding the participation of the entire community in improving the quality of their lives. However, everything is left to each individual, although if there are still shortcomings it is not the will of his heart. Because we've tried.
This cultural record provides a hypothesis. Generally, people used to name something, descendants (children) or areas would be based on history and would have similar naming. If a German naturalist lists the Tandjong Sarandjana area, of course with information from the people of the area, because there is no vocabulary that comes close to German. Estimating the basis of the name of the Nansarunai or Nan Sarunai Kingdom.
Study: Saranjaya/ Tandjong Sarandjana The syllable Saran is close to Saruna from the word Sarunai. The syllable Jaya may have the same meaning as today, jaya, which means to win/better/advance, as the hope in the song Tinga janyawai improves the quality of life.

Current Information
Quoted from the YouTube channel @YouTube @Zona Project Channel, her real name is Pua Bela.
Pua Bela admitted that he was able to go in and out of Saranjaya at first, because his uncle often brought him.
"After I died, I was given the anu (will)," said the Palopo Journal from YouTube @YouTube @Zona Project Channel. He admitted that he had been with the residents of Saranjana City for a long time. Through Pua Bela's narrative, it is known that the residents of Saranjana have a religion.
"Some are Muslim, some are not, there are many tribes. There are a lot of Javanese, Mandar, Bugis mixtures," explained Pua Bela. Generally work at sea (as a fisherman?)

Study: there is a historical record of Kotabaru history based on the historian Goh Yoon Fong's record which states Pulau Laut (around the approximate area of Saranjaya city) as a gift or land of apanage. This gift was given by the Sultanate of Banjar to Prince Purabaya as a tribute and reward for peace. Prince Purbaya from Mataram or Java. So it is possible that the residents of Saranjaya also came from the followers of Prince Purbaya. If Pua Bela said that the people of Saranjaya City were a mixture of Javanese, Mandar and Bugis.

The concept of freedom from the cycle of reincarnation
The term moksha is often used in Hindu and Buddhist beliefs. This concept simply means breaking away from all worldly ties, as well as the cycle of reincarnation of life

Historically Kotabaru in exchange for peace. Prince Purbaya from Mataram or Java. Even though the Islamic empire The Sultanate of Mataram is a symbol of the establishment of the socio-political power of Islam in Java which is a point of transition as well as a transitional period from the Hindu-Buddhist period to the Kajawen (Ka-jawi's) period. Mataram is recognized as capable of broadcasting Islam culturally which was marked by major changes during the time of Sultan Agung in adapting religion to local culture.

Study: Information on Pua Bela, the residents of Saranjana, have a religion. There are Muslims and non-Muslims. Approaching the description of the Mataram sultanate who took part in the region related to religion. The Islamic kingdom but there was a Hindu-Buddhist cultural period. From the Hindu-Buddhist culture, it is estimated that the concept of moksha plays a role so that the city of Saranjaya becomes magical like the current information picture.
Riau Islands

10 Must-Visit Tourist Attractions in Batam Indonesia for Adventure Seekers: More than Just a Quick Getaway

Discover 10 Must-Visit Tourist Attractions in Batam, Indonesia, a go-to destination for adventure seekers. Is it time to add Batam to your adventure bucket list? Both for aspiring adventurers and online articles. This piece isn't just a list. It showcases Batam's value from an eco-tourism perspective and as a multi-cultural treasure, bringing Batam's unique experience to the forefront.
10 Must-Visit Tourist Attractions in Batam, Indonesia for Adventure Seekers" - this tropical paradise offers multiple environmental potentials that attract visitors from around the globe, especially potential tourists from neighbouring Singapore and Malaysia.

Potential Tourists from Singapore and Malaysia
Singapore and Malaysia are merely a boat trip away from Batam. But what makes Batam, Indonesia so irresistible - not only to the adventure-seeking tourists from these neighbouring countries but also to global travellers? This article unravels this tropical gem highlighting not just its environmental potential but also its rich cultural heritage in a holistic experience.

Batam's Environmental Support
Lush greenery, pristine beaches and impressive landscapes – a description that fits Batam perfectly. These critical environmental supports form an idyllic setting for adventure seekers. But what specific spots should be on your go-to list? Let's dig in.

1. Barelang Bridge
An engineering marvel that spans across six islands. Isn't it fascinating to walk across a bridge that links multiple islands together?
2. Abang Island
Home to vibrant coral reefs and marine life – an absolute paradise for divers and snorkelers. How appealing is a plunge into clear turquoise waters?
3. Batam Miniature Park
A park showcasing traditional houses from various regions in Indonesia. Ever wondered about the diversity of Indonesian architecture?
4. Tua Pek Kong Temple
This Buddhist Temple is a testimony to Batam's multicultural society. Are you curious about religion in this part of the world?
5. Nongsa Beach
Boasting pristine sands and clear waters, it's a must-visit for beach enthusiasts. Who wouldn't love a tranquil day at a picture-perfect beach?
6. Maha Vihara Duta Maitreya
This serene Buddhist temple complex with a vegetarian restaurant at its premises presents a unique experience. Have you ever tried Indonesian vegetarian cuisine?
7. Adventure Ranoh Island
This newly developed spot offers various water sports and picnic activities. How about some adrenaline rush amidst nature's best?
8. Nagoya City Walk
A haven for shopping enthusiasts, this place has plenty to offer, from local crafts to branded goods. Ready to fill up those shopping bags?
9. Melur Beach
A less crowded alternative to Nongsa, perfect for a day of relaxation. How about a tranquil retreat away from the buzzing crowd?
10. Tiban Buddhist Monastery
Awe-inspiring architecture, holy relics, and tranquillity make it a must-visit spot. Need an escape to a spiritual world?
This isn't an exhaustive list by any means, but it definitely offers a taste of what awaits in Batam, Indonesia for the adventure seekers. Maybe it’s about time to start jotting down Batam on your adventure bucket list?

The official Publications the open development Cambodia 3 March 2015

The official Publications  the open development Cambodia
 3 March 2015  Environment and natural resources

Cambodia’s environment provides natural resources including forests, waterways, plants and wildlife. Natural resources also include minerals, energy and extractives. The environment is varied, covering at least seven distinct landscapes across the country.

Just under two-thirds of Cambodia’s population depend on agriculture, forest products and fisheries for their livelihoods,1 so the management of the environment and natural resources is of great importance. Cambodia’s environment is also considered a resource for the world. Part of the Burma Indochina Hotspot, Cambodia is a treasure house of biodiversity. So far, around 8,260 species of plant, 874 species of fish, 500 species of bird and  more than 250 species of amphibian and reptile have been identified.2 On the Red List of the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), 264 species are listed as threatened in Cambodia.3 However, economic development has led to significant environmental changes since the 1990s.

Although Cambodia’s geography is dominated by the low-lying central plains that make up about three-quarters of the country, there are several other distinct landscapes: forested highlands (including the Cardamon, Dangrek and Chhlong mountains; flooded forest; the Tonle Sap lake and Mekong river system; the eastern plains or highlands; central forest; the coastal region that includes mangrove wetlands; and islands of the Gulf of Thailand.

With about two-thirds of Cambodia—including the Tonle Sap—sitting in the Mekong basin, it’s environment and ecosystems contribute significantly to the health of the whole Mekong region, and especially the Mekong Delta. From as early as 2001, the FAO has highlighted changes to the Tonle Sap ecosystem brought on by siltation, agro-chemicals, other pollution, changes to hydrology, irrigation and transportation, as well as the fact that these changes impact the broader Mekong system.4 This highlights some of the main challenges facing Cambodia’s environment and natural resources as the country’s economy develops. The growing and increasingly urban population, who are earning more and demanding a more modern life-style, are putting pressure on land, food resources and transportation needs.
Environmental policy
The Ministry of Environment is responsible for implementing the Environment Law and associated regulations, in-line with the Constitution’s mandate that the state take responsibility to “protect the environment and balance of abundant natural resources”.5 

The Ministry of the Environment’s Climate Change Department released its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) policy in October 2015, which targets a 27 percent cut in greenhouse gas emissions from the projected status quo levels for 2030. In addition, it sets a target of increasing forest cover to 60 percent of total land area by 2030. Prior to the release of this policy, expenditure on climate change was set to grow to 1.5 percent of GDP by 2018.6

Care of the environment and natural resources is a focus in many strategy documents. The government’s Rectangular Strategy for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency gives high priority to environmental protection. Cambodia’s Millennium Development Goals included a specific goal to “integrate principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources.”7 The National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) for 2014–2018 states the importance of protecting natural resources and sustainable development.8

The 1993 Royal Decree on the Protection of Natural Areas, administered by the Ministry of Environment, recognized 23 protected areas in four categories:

natural parks,
wildlife preserves,
protected scenic view areas, and
multi-purpose areas.
At the time, these covered more than 18 per cent of the country’s total land area.9

Cambodia’s Resource Governance Index ‘poor’ grade of 30 out of 100 points in 2017 placed it 79th out of 89 countries and 14th out of 15 countries in the Asia/Pacific. The score, for its early-stage gold mining, reflected poor ratings for national budgeting and licences in particular.10

Environmental value
The government has recognized the contribution various areas of the country’s environment and natural resources make to the economy, and development. Their National Forest Sector Policy identifies socio-economic development and poverty reduction as two of the driving factors behind its sustainable forest management activities.11 Some report, however, that despite a strong legislative framework for the environment, it is either ignored or side-stepped for short-term personal gain.12

The World Bank has estimated the total value of Cambodia’s natural resource rents as a percentage of GDP. This shows the contribution that natural resources (such as forest timber) make to the country’s economic output. This has fallen in recent decades, from a high of 8.3 percent in 1995 to 1.9 percent in 2016, as other industries such as manufacturing have grown.13

Conservation of the environment indirectly contributes to tourism income through eco-tourism programs, which made up 1.3 per cent of all tourism arrivals in 2014. In the same year, tourism contributed US$2.736 billion to the economy.14

Besides the environment’s financial value, areas of Cambodia’s natural landscape have high cultural and spiritual value to the country’s indigenous groups. For instance, the Prey Lang Community Network reports that approximately 200,000 Kuy people depend on the central forest area known as Prey Lang for their livelihoods, and their social and spiritual traditions are tied to the forest.15 Other indigenous and Khmer community groups make similar claims across the country.

Cambodia has a rich bio-diversity, including an array of diverse organisms and forest resource on which many poor people in the countryside depend for livelihood. However, in recent years the forest resource has increasingly come under pressure from economic land utilization. Meanwhile, the country is known to be vulnerable to impacts of climate change due to its low adaptation capacity. Rural populations are most at risk to destructive climatic events such flood and drought.16"


Air Quality Management: A Necessity. Translating Data into Policy: The Process

By  kompetensimedia July 21, 2023

Introduction to Supervision
Supervision plays a pivotal role in various organizational and environmental decisions. It involves observing, guiding, and managing activities to ensure they reach intended goals. In the context of environmental science, supervision involves monitoring various environmental factors and phenomena, interpreting data, and making substantial policy decisions. This essay will focus on two key environmental issues - acid deposition and air quality management, and how supervision aids in deriving data-based policies for their management.
Acid Deposition: Understanding the Concept
Acid deposition is a pressing environmental issue, primarily caused by human activities. It refers to the process where certain pollutants, mainly sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere combine with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form acidic compounds. These then return to the earth's surface in the form of rain, fog, dew, or dust - commonly known as 'acid rain'. Acid deposition can drastically harm aquatic ecosystems, forests, wildlife, and even cause damage to buildings and human health.
Accurate supervision aids in understanding the sources and impact of acid deposition. Through systematic data collection and interpretation, it is possible to evaluate the severity of the problem at a specific location, recognize the main culprits responsible, and develop strategies to alleviate the potential damage.

Air Quality Management: A Necessity
Air quality refers to the condition of the air surrounding us and its capacity to sustain life and health. Various harmful substances present in the atmosphere such as gases, dust particles, and smoke impact air quality negatively. Poor air quality poses significant threats to environmental and human health, contributing to diseases like asthma, heart disease, and even leading to premature death.
Managing air quality is a complex task requiring rigorous supervision. Measurement and monitoring of air pollutants provide key data to assess air quality levels and understand the need for necessary actions to limit harmful emissions. Thus, effective supervision is instrumental in creating robust air quality management strategies.

Translating Data into Policy: The Process
Data-driven policy should be at the heart of tackling environmental issues like acid deposition and poor air quality. The process begins with meticulous data collection through various environmental monitoring devices. Algorithms and other data analysis methods are then employed to interpret the collected data, providing insights that inform policy-making.
Supervision plays an intrinsic role in this process, ensuring that data collection and interpretation are conducted accurately and objectively, thereby resulting in reliable data-based policies. For instance, understanding the sources, extent, and impacts of acid deposition and air pollution can lead to policies that promote cleaner industrial practices or stricter emissions standards.
The effectiveness of these policies should also be monitored and evaluated through continuous data collection and interpretation. This iterative process of supervision aids in constantly updating and refining policy decisions, ensuring they remain relevant and effective in managing the ever-evolving environmental challenges.

In summary, supervision is a critical component in addressing environmental issues like acid deposition and air quality management. It ensures systematic data collection and interpretation, both of which are crucial in formulating, implementing, and monitoring the effectiveness of data-driven policies. Therefore, improving supervisory practices is a significant step towards better environmental management and policy-making, eventually leading to a healthier and sustainable earth.

Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia