Field Study Iran Persian - Media kompetensi



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Field Study Iran Persian


Early history, Median Empire and Achaemenid Empire (3200 BC – 330 BC)

Early History (3200 BC–550 BC):
The early days of the ancient world have been shrouded in mystery. Although historians are still resurrecting the stories of these early civilizations, some pieces of the puzzle can still be found. From 3200 BC to 550 BC, the regions that are now known as the Middle East and surrounding Mediterranean lands experienced significant advances in early civilization.

The Sumerians are often cited as the first civilization of Mesopotamia, as evidenced by cuneiform writing, drawings, and artifacts dating back to roughly 3200 BC. By 3500 BC, the ancient Sumerian cities of Eridu, Uruk, and Ur developed. These cities would form the basis of the subsequent Mesopotamian civilizations of Babylon, Assyria, and the Medians. The area also included the Elamites and Hurrians, both of whom were displaced by the Assyrian Empire during the Bronze Age.

Median Empire (728 BC–550 BC):
The Median Empire was one of the earliest known empires of the Middle East and surrounding regions. It began in the late 8th century BC, when the Medes – originally a nomadic people from the Zagros Mountains – had grown and began to expand their domain. The Median Empire would eventually stretch from what is now the eastern present-day Turkey, Iran, and Iraq, as well as parts of Central Asia and the Caucasus Mountains.

The Median Empire's first king, Deioces, was crowned in 728 BC and Kings Cyrus II the Great and Astyages would both have significant impact on the empire's growth. The Median Empire was finally conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in 550 BC, though local Median dynasties would persist for another three centuries.

Achaemenid Empire (549 BC–330 BC):
The Achaemenid Empire was the largest and longest-lasting of the ancient empires of the Middle East. Founded in 559 BC by Cyrus the Great of Persia, it included much of the land between the Nile and the Indus Rivers. It encompassed the regions of Egypt, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Persia, and Mesopotamia. It was one of the first, if not the first, multi-cultural empires.

The Achaemenid Empire brought stability to the region with its public works, strong government, and standardized weights and measures, as well as its legal system. It was also a major trading hub for goods which were traded between the East and West. After ruling for two centuries, the Achaemenid Empire was conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. Afterwards the region experienced further turbulence, but the archetypical structures of the Achaemenid Empire remained in place for centuries to come.