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Field Study Japan

Geisha Experience at Chaya in Tokyo
Ota City, Japan, Asia
Investment value 76.26 USD 
Certified Study Package
Get acquainted with a real-life geisha during a cultural experience in Tokyo. An intimate encounter designed for travelers interested in Japanese culture, this tour includes a geisha performance, traditionally featuring songs, dances, and games, and refreshments such as tea and sweets. Learn about the history of the geisha and upgrade to include lunch and unlimited drinks. A cultural experience designed to educate first-time visitors Watch a geisha performance, traditionally featuring songs, dances, and games Enjoy refreshments such as tea and Japanese sweets Upgrade to include lunch and unlimited drinks 
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Departure Point 1 Chome-12 Omorikita, Ota City, Tokyo 143-0016, Return Details Returns to original departure point Itinerary Pass By: Japan Awaits Travel company Pass By: Shinagawa Shrine Shinagawa Shrine is one of 10 shrines forming a ring around the Imperial Palace Pass By: Senso-ji Temple It is Tokyo's oldest temple, and one of its most significant. Pass By: Tokyo Skytree World's tallest freestanding broadcasting tower with an observation deck boasting 360-degree views. Pass By: Tokyo Tower Reminiscent of the Eiffel Tower, this landmark features observation areas and other attractions. Pass By: Meiji Jingu Shrine Surrounded by forest, this venerable Shinto shrine features a seasonal iris garden. Pass By: Imperial Palace This site with scenic gardens and tours of the grounds is the main residence of the emperor of Japan. Pass By: The East Gardens of the Imperial Palace (Edo Castle Ruin) Large landscaped gardens in the grounds of a palace first built in 1888, with some Edo castle ruins. Pass By: Tsukiji Fish Market Sprawling wholesale fish market with an array of seafood and viewing areas for a popular tuna auction. Pass By: Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden This former estate is now a 143-acre park with diverse garden areas, grassy expanses and a greenhouse. Pass By: Harajuku Station Buzzing Harajuku is renowned for its colorful street art and fashion scene, with quirky vintage clothing stores and cosplay shops along Takeshita Street Pass By: Roppongi Hills, Shop and Restaurant Roppongi is a lively entertainment district where locals and tourists mix in buzzing late-night bars and clubs. Pass By: Yoyogi Park Large, public city park with lakes, fountains and forested areas with mature trees. Pass By: Tokyo Metropolitan Government Buildings Kenzo Tange-designed City Hall complex with views from the tallest building's observation decks. Pass By: Hamarikyu Gardens Public park with a pond, laid out in the Edo-period style, on the site of 17th-century Shogun villa. Pass By: Omotesando Omotesandō is a zelkova tree-lined avenue located in Shibuya and Minato, Tokyo, stretching from the Meiji Shrine entrance to Aoyama-dōri, Pass By: Ueno Park A paradise-like oasis of green in the heart of busy Tokyo, Ueno Park is the city's largest green space and one of its most popular tourist attractions. Pass By: Takeshita Street This popular pedestrian street features trendy independent and chain shops, along with eateries. Pass By: Kabukicho District Kabukichō is an entertainment and red-light district in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan. Pass By: Tokyo National Museum Stately museum complex devoted to the art and antiquities of Japan, as well as other Asian countries. Pass By: Rikugi Park Playground Picturesque garden featuring traditional Japanese landscaping, several teahouses and a central pond. Pass By: Nakamise Shopping Street (Kaminarimon) Bustling shopping street connecting the main gate of Sensoji Temple and the main hall. Pass By: Edo-Tokyo Museum Major museum opened in 1993 and displaying artifacts from Tokyo's Edo period and one-off exhibits. Pass By: Taito Station Ueno Ameya Yokocho Popular indoor-outdoor market with many shops selling everything from food and gifts to apparel. Pass By: Edo Castle Stone-walled Moat Moats, walls and other remains of this castle built in 1457 are now part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace. Pass By: Koishikawa Korakuen Garden Tranquil, scenic landscape garden dating to the 17th century, with walking paths, a pond and bridges. Pass By: Yasukuni Shrine Shinto-style shrine commemorating Japanese war dead with a military history museum on its grounds. Pass By: Shinjuku Golden Gai Festive, popular city district famed for its narrow, winding alleys and numerous snug taverns. Pass By: Kappabashi Street (Kappabashi Dogugai) Popular shopping street known for its many restaurant-supply shops and kitchen-equipment dealers. Pass By: Tokyo Midtown Tokyo Midtown is a 569,000-square-meter mixed-use development in Akasaka, Tokyo, Japan Pass By: Mori Art Museum Art museum in the Mori Tower featuring a rotating exhibition of international contemporary artwork. Pass By: Zojo-ji Temple The main temple of Jōdo-shū Buddhism, this compound includes ornate buildings dating to the 1600s. Pass By: National Museum of Nature and Science Sprawling museum with a 360-degree movie theater and exhibits on topics such as dinosaurs and evolution. Pass By: National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation Miraikan Hands-on exhibits and classes exploring the future of science and technology, plus a cafe and a gift shop. Pass By: Ginza Tokyo's most famous upmarket shopping, dining and entertainment district, featuring numerous department stores, boutiques, art galleries, restaurants, night clubs and cafes.

Tokyo Sumo Morning Practice
Sumida City, Japan, Asia
Investment value 90.35 USD 
Certified Study Package
Get an inside look into Japan’s ancient, traditional national sport: sumo wrestling. Travelers can find it hard to gain access to the wrestlers’ stables without local help. On this morning training tour you’ll see the athletes practicing, close up. Enjoy this exclusive insight into Japanese culture and history through this fascinating sport. See the wrestlers in an unstaged practice setting Tour photos are included Get insider access with your local guide Sports enthusiasts will especially love this tour 
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Departure Point Japan, 〒130-0015 Tokyo, Sumida City, Yokoami, 1-chōme−3−5 JR両国駅東口高架下 Right outside of JR Ryogoku Station East Exit Please note that there are two Ryogoku stations and the meeting point is the JR Ryogoku station, (NOT Toei-Oedo line Ryogoku station). Your guide will be holding an orange/red board saying "Magical Trip". Return Details Returns to original departure point Itinerary Stop At: Ryogoku Your guide will walk with you to one of the sumo stables. It will take around 5min to 30min depending on which stable is available to us that day. You will enter the stable together with your guide and watch the sumo practice for around 1 to 2 hours. Duration: 1 hour 30 minutes Admission Ticket Included Pass By: Ryogoku Station You will meet your guide and group at Ryogoku JR Station East Exit. Your guide will be holding a red/orange "MagicalTrip" board. PLEASE NOTE: There are two Ryogoku stations. Do NOT go to Ryogoku Oedo Line Station. Pass By: Edo-Tokyo Museum Pass by Edo Tokyo Museum next to Ryogoku Station Pass By: Ryogoku Kokugikan Pass by Ryogoku Kokugikan Stop At: Sumo Museum After watching the sumo practice, the group will visit the sumo museum unless it is closed. Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Included Pass By: Ryogoku Station After watching the sumo practice your guide will walk you back to Ryogoku station. ;

Akihabara Anime & Gaming Adventure
Chiyoda City, Japan, Asia
Investment value 71.22 USD 
Certified Study Package
Whether you’re an anime and gaming fan, or you just want to learn more about this exciting part of Japanese popular culture, this is the tour for you. Get explanations about Japanese culture that you wouldn’t get if exploring the area alone, and experience all the “must do” activities in Akihabara, such as visiting a retro video game store, a maid cafe, a photo booth, and much more. Get a guide’s shortlist of top Akihabara experiences, such as a maid cafe A small-group tour means a more personalized experience Enjoy the perk of having maid cafe entry, a drink, and a photo included Benefit from having a guide who can answer questions as you explore 
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Departure Point 1 Chome-17 Sotokanda, Chiyoda City, Tokyo 101-0021, Japan In front of Ticket Office right outside of Electric Town Gate of JR Akihabara station. Your guide will be holding a red/orange sign saying "Magical Trip" Return Details Returns to original departure point Itinerary Pass By: Akihabara Meet up at the JR Akihabara station with your guide and start exploring the town! Pass By: Sega Akihabara 1st Pass by Sega Akihabara Pass By: Akiba Zettai Ryōiki Maid Cafe Stop At: Akihabara A lot of unique Japanese stuff like Maid Cafe, Gaming center and more Duration: 3 hours Admission Ticket Free Pass By: Akihabara Vending Machine Corner Last tope is the weired vending machine corner. You can take a look and purchase there. Stop At: Akihabara Explore the anime town, Akihabara with a local guide for 3 hours. Duration: 3 hours Admission Ticket Free ;

World Heritage of Nikko Toshogu,Lake Chuzenji,Kegon Falls
Shinjuku City, Japan, Asia
Investment value 132.87 USD 
Certified Study Package
Enhance your experience of Nikko National Park on an enriching full-day excursion from Tokyo. Feast your eyes upon breathtaking countryside, sacred shrines, and stunning temples as you explore the region with an accomplished guide. Visit Toshogu Shrine, a UNESCO World Heritage site dedicated to Shinto worship, and hear about the structure’s fascinating history. Opt for the upgrade to pleasure your palate with a traditional Japanese lunch, and then absorb the natural splendor of Lake Chuzenji and Kegon Falls. Plus, enjoy the convenience of round-trip transportation from Tokyo on this comprehensive tour. Full-day trip to Nikko National Park from Tokyo See the impressive wood carvings and ornate structures of Toshogu Shrine, a UNESCO World Heritage site Enjoy a Japanese lunch (if option selected) Round-trip transportation from central Tokyo 
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Departure Point 2 Chome-2 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku City, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan Departure time 8:15am Keio Plaza Hotel, JTB Sunrise Tours Check in Counter, Main Building 3rd Floor Departure Time 8:15 AM Return Details 1-chōme-7-2 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku City, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan Near Shinjuku station, West Exit Climb aboard a comfortable, air-conditioned coach from your meet-up point at centrally located Keio Plaza Hotel, and begin the scenic drive the Nikko, a serene city at the entrance of Nikko National Park. Head straight to what is unanimously hailed as the park’s most spectacular site, the Toshogu Shrine, a UNESCO-listed mausoleum of a revered monarch whole ruled Japan in the 17th century. Marvel at lavish gold-leaf embellishments and opulent chambers during your exploration of the monument. See iconic carvings depicting the ‘hear no evil’ proverb, and then revitalize with a delectable Japanese lunch if you selected the option at booking. Next, venture to the natural landmark of Kegon Waterfall. Capture the perfect pictures of the falls from a variety of vantage points, including the observation deck. Conclude your tour with some retail therapy at one of Tokyo’s most extravagant entertainment districts. Peruse shops for special souvenirs (own expense), and refresh with a snack at one of the many eateries (own expense) before making your own way back to your hotel. Itinerary Stop At: Kegon Falls * Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Included Stop At: Nikko Tosho-gu * Duration: 1 hour 30 minutes Admission Ticket Included Stop At: Lake Chuzenji * Duration: 10 minutes Admission Ticket Free

Mount Fuji and Hakone
Tokyo, Japan, Asia
Investment value 615.61 USD per group (up to 7) 
Certified Study Package
Check out one of Japan's most beautiful, iconic destinations—Mt. Fuji—on this convenient day tour from Tokyo. Visit several places in the Fuji area from where you can get beautiful views of the mountain (weather permitting), including Hakone, Lake Kawaguchi, the 5th Station on Mt. Fuji, and more. As this is a private tour, you can customize the itinerary to suit your own interests. The flexible itinerary can be adjusted to suit your needs See as much or as little as you like during the day, as this is a private tour for you An easy and hassle-free way of visiting the Fuji area from Tokyo Travelers with a range of interests will enjoy the attractions around Mt. Fuji 
Syllabus Study method
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Departure Point Tokyo, Japan We will pick you from your Hotel or place of staying. Departure Time 8:30 AM Return Details Returns to original departure point Itinerary Stop At: Mount Fuji Visit Mt fuji viewing locations and Hakone at same day on this day trip from Tokyo. This tour is private charter with English speaking guide. Our guide will introduce you beautiful places with fun. The trip is fully customizable and we are open for your suggestions. Recommend itinerary Mt fuji and Hakone itinerary - lake Kawaguchi - mt fuji 5th station - Kachi Kachi ropeway - Hakone ropeway - lake ashi - owakudani Hotel drop off at 6:30. Mt Fuji area only suggested itinerary Mt fuji 5th Station if weather permitted Lake Kawaguchi Kachi Kachi ropeway Kita hongou Sengen shrine Oshino Hakkai Oishi park Arashiyam Sengen shrine if we have time or depend upon customer preferences. Duration: 10 hours Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Mt. Fuji 5th Station The Last Point at Mt fuji where we can reach by Car. Duration: 30 minutes Admission Ticket Not Included Stop At: Lake Kawaguchiko 2nd Biggest Lake of Mt Fuji area after Lake Yamanaka. You can see Mt Fuji from Kachi Kachi ropeway or cruise at Lake Kawaguchi. Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Not Included Stop At: Lake Ashinoko Lake Ashi, also referred to as Hakone Lake or Ashinoko Lake, is a scenic lake in the Hakone area of Kanagawa Prefecture in Honshū, Japan. You can Experience Pirate Cruise at Lake Ashi. Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Not Included Stop At: Oshino Hakkai Small village in a scenic setting with 8 ponds, views of Mt. Fuji and vendors of food and souvenirs. Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Kitaguchi Hongu Fuji Sengen Jinja Shrine In the past, Fujiyoshida's Sengen Shrine used to be the common starting point for climbing Mount Fuji from the north Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Arakurayama Sengen Park Iconic pagoda on a hilltop facing Mt. Fuji in Arakurayama Sengen Park, reached via 398 steps. Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Free Stop At: Saiko Iyashi no Sato Nemba A traditional Japanese village Duration: 1 hour Admission Ticket Not Included

Meetings Venue 

Kobe Sannomiya Tokyu REI Hotel
Star rating 3
Address 6-1-5 Kumoidori, Chuo-ku ,  Kobe 651-0096,  Hyogo, Japan, Asia
Certified Study Package
Small Hall "Jasmine" Area 30sqm Guest Capacity 24 Guest(s) Banquet/Meeting Style Dinner/Theater Small Hall "Maple" Area 66sqm Guest Capacity 56Guest(s) Banquet/Meeting Style Dinner,Reception,School,Theater Medium Hall "Ball Room-A" Area 162sqm Guest Capacity 144 Guest(s) Banquet/Meeting Style Dinner,Reception,School,Theater,Square Layout Medium Hall "Ball-B" Area 128sqm Guest Capacity 90Guest(s) Banquet/Meeting Style Dinner,Reception,School,Theater,Square Layout

Think Tanks

The official Publications  the Government of Japan
"The 15th Japan-China Energy Conservation and Environment Forum Held (Summary of the Results)
December 27, 2021

1. Summarized results of the forum
The 15th Japan-China Energy Conservation and Environment Forum was held on December 26 (Sun.), 2021. Due to the impact of COVID-19, it was held online this year, the same as last year. The event was attended by some 700 stakeholders from both the public and private sectors, including: Minister Hagiuda, Mr. Yamaguchi Tsuyoshi (Minister of the Environment), and Mr. Muneoka Shoji (Chairman of the Japan-China Economic Association), and other officials as representatives of Japan; and Chairman He Lifeng of the NDRC, H.E. Mr. Ren Hongbin (Vice Minister of Commerce), H.E. Mr. Kong Xuanyou (Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the People’s Republic of China), and other officials as representatives of China.

Memorandums for establishment of 11 new cooperation projects were exchanged at the forum (see the Appendix). With these exchanges, the number of such projects has come to 413 since the inauguration of the forum in 2006.

At the plenary session, Minister Hagiuda stated that this forum should focus on ""diverse paths to becoming carbon neutral and Japan-China cooperation"" and explained Japan's efforts toward carbon neutrality. At the same time, he expressed the importance of Japan-China cooperation toward solving common issues, such as facilitation of smooth energy transition. He also presented the concrete progress of Japan-China cooperation in the fields of hydrogen and energy conservation, and expressed his hope for further expansion.

Furthermore, the forum provided four sessions titled ""improvement of energy efficiency (energy conservation),"" ""introduction of electrified and smarter vehicles,"" ""hydrogen and clean electricity,"" and ""Japan-China long-term trading (water environment management and sludge disposal),"" and representatives of the public sectors, major companies and other organizations from Japan and China exchanged views at the sessions.

The Prime Minister in Action
Global Warming Prevention Headquarters
September 3, 2021

On September 3, 2021, the Prime Minister held the 47th meeting of the Global Warming Prevention Headquarters at the Prime Minister’s Office.

At the meeting, the participants engaged in discussions on the draft Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures and the draft Long-Term Strategy under the Paris Agreement and other matters.

Following the discussion, the Prime Minister said,
 “Today, we compiled government drafts of our Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures and our Long-Term Strategy under the Paris Agreement, among others.
As shown in torrential rains, record heat waves, and other weather events, climate change has become a global issue. Facing this squarely and regarding global warming countermeasures as what will serve as a catalyst for new investments and innovation, rather than restrictions on economic activities – with this mindset, we decided on the goal of net-zero emissions by 2050. In addition, we made the decision to seek a 46 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by fiscal year 2030 and continue to strive in the challenge to aim at the goal of cutting emissions by 50 percent.
Concrete measures to realize these goals and our course of action have been compiled in our Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures and our long-term strategy.
The first is the principle of giving the highest priority to renewable energy. We will accelerate the adoption of renewable energy by designating promotion zones across the country, among other measures.
The second is thorough energy saving. For instance, we will expand the scope of housing and other buildings that are required to meet energy-saving standards.
The third is decarbonization of local communities and transformation of lifestyles. We will discover preceding examples in local communities to encourage positive action toward decarbonization in food, clothing, and housing as well as transportation.
From now, we will work to have the Government take a decision in the autumn, after hearing the views of members of the public. The COP26 (26th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) will convene from the end of October. We will demonstrate Japan’s concrete actions to the world, and we will involve emerging powers as we lead the world toward decarbonization and sustainable growth.”"

Main article: History of Japan
Prehistoric to classical history

Legendary Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇, Jinmu-tennō)
A Paleolithic culture from around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the islands of Japan.[16] This was followed from around 14,500 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture.[17] Clay vessels from the period are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery.[18] From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon;[19] the Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices including wet-rice farming,[20] a new style of pottery,[21] and metallurgy from China and Korea.[22] According to legend, Emperor Jimmu (grandson of Amaterasu) founded a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a continuous imperial line.[23]

Japan first appears in written history in the Chinese Book of Han, completed in 111 AD. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje (a Korean kingdom) in 552, but the development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China.[24] Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class, including figures like Prince Shōtoku, and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710).[25]

The far-reaching Taika Reforms in 645 nationalized all land in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a household registry as the basis for a new system of taxation.[26] The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for further administrative reforms.[27] These reforms culminated with the promulgation of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the structure of the central and subordinate local governments.[26] These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a system of Chinese-style centralized government that remained in place for half a millennium.[27]

The Nara period (710–784) marked the emergence of a Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō (modern Nara). The period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary culture with the completion of the Kojiki (712) and Nihon Shoki (720), as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired artwork and architecture.[28][29] A smallpox epidemic in 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population.[29][30] In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital, settling on Heian-kyō (modern-day Kyoto) in 794.[29] This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged. Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem ""Kimigayo"" were written during this time.[31]

Feudal era
Samurai warriors battling Mongols during the Mongol invasions of Japan, depicted in the Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba
Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai.[32] In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government at Kamakura.[33] After Yoritomo's death, the Hōjō clan came to power as regents for the shōgun.[29] The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class.[34] The Kamakura shogunate repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo.[29] Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336–1573).[35] The succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyō) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period (""Warring States"").[36]

During the 16th century, Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West.[29][37] Oda Nobunaga used European technology and firearms to conquer many other daimyō;[38] his consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period.[39] After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597.[29]

Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi's son Toyotomi Hideyori and used his position to gain political and military support.[40] When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo).[41] The shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyō,[42] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku (""closed country"") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868).[41][43] Modern Japan's economic growth began in this period, resulting in roads and water transportation routes, as well as financial instruments such as futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers.[44] The study of Western sciences (rangaku) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki.[41] The Edo period gave rise to kokugaku (""national studies""), the study of Japan by the Japanese.[45]

Modern era
Emperor Meiji (明治天皇, Meiji-tennō); 1852–1912)
In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the ""Black Ships"" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa.[41] Subsequent similar treaties with other Western countries brought economic and political crises.[41] The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized state nominally unified under the emperor (the Meiji Restoration).[46] Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet.[47] During the Meiji period (1868–1912), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia and as an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence.[48][49][50] After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea and the southern half of Sakhalin.[51][47] The Japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant shift to urbanization.[52][53]

The early 20th century saw a period of Taishō democracy (1912–1926) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and militarization.[54][55] World War I allowed Japan, which joined the side of the victorious Allies, to capture German possessions in the Pacific and in China.[55] The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of laws against political dissent, and a series of attempted coups.[53][56][57] This process accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a number of radical nationalist groups that shared a hostility to liberal democracy and a dedication to expansion in Asia. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria; following international condemnation of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later.[58] In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers.[53]

Japan's imperial ambitions ended on September 2, 1945, with the country's surrender to the Allies.
The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).[59] In 1940, the Empire invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan.[53][60] On December 7–8, 1941, Japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, as well as on British forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong, among others, beginning World War II in the Pacific.[61] Throughout areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against local inhabitants, with many forced into sexual slavery.[62] After Allied victories during the next four years, which culminated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender.[63] The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives.[53] The Allies (led by the United States) repatriated millions of Japanese settlers from their former colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and its influence over the territories it conquered.[64][65] The Allies convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute Japanese leaders for war crimes.[65]

In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices.[65] The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952,[66] and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956.[65] A period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world;[65] this ended in the mid-1990s after the popping of an asset price bubble, beginning the ""Lost Decade"".[67] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its recorded history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.[68] On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became Emperor, beginning the Reiwa era.[69]"