Neuschwanstein and Linderhof Castle

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Salute to Pearl Harbor


Field Study United States America
History
Salute to Pearl Harbor
Honolulu ,  Hawaii , United States, North America
Rate Average 50,26 USD
Overview
While visiting Honolulu, take a half-day tour of Pearl Harbor that details the history of World War II in Hawaii. Visit the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument and Battleship Row with a guide who shares informative commentary about Oahu during the war in the Pacific. Half-day Pearl Harbor tour from Honolulu See the exhibits at the WWII Valor in the Pacific National Monument Ride out to the USS Arizona Memorial Includes entrance fees, and hotel pickup and drop-off
Departure Point Traveler pickup is offered If unsure, or if your hotel is not listed, we recommend reconfirming your tour pick-up time and location with tour operator. Stated pickup time is when pickup begins. Please contact tour operator for exact time. Our tours do not allow guests to meet directly at Pearl Harbor. Guests must meet at one of the pick up locations offered; you may not drive out to Pearl Harbor on your own Drop-off in Waikiki between 1:45pm-2:30pm USS Arizona Memorial Experience a boat ride to visit the memorial over the sunken battleship. 1 hour Admission Ticket Included 2 Pearl Harbor National Memorial Explore museums, see actual attack footage and waterfront memorials. 1 hour Admission Ticket Included Downtown Honolulu (Pass By) Drive by the historic Aloha Tower. An iconic symbol of Hawaii and hear it's storied history
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Drone View
Las Vegas Helicopter Night Flight with Optional VIP Transportation
Las Vegas, United States, North America
Rate Average 89.99 USD
Overview
See the bright lights of the Las Vegas Strip and the surrounding region during this nighttime helicopter flight. Soar over this famous stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard with an exclusive sightseeing tour of Sin City’s downtown skyline and beyond, including the Bellagio, the Mirage, and the Fremont Street Experience. Your flight covers approximately 20 miles (32 kilometers) and includes a celebratory glass of sparkling wine. There are a variety of departure times available throughout the evening to fit into almost any schedule. Hotel pickup and drop-off by Mercedes Sprinter is included (if option selected). ** Please note weight restrictions on the helicopter ** Nighttime helicopter flight over the Las Vegas Strip Enjoy sparkling wine and refreshments at check-in Admire the Las Vegas Strip from above See the Luxor, the Bellagio, and other famous hotels Upgrade to include dinner at a local restaurant

5596 Haven St, Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA We are located just opposite the Mandalay Bay and Four Seasons Hotels. Follow Four Season Drive until Haven Street and turn right. We offer free parking for guests. Return Details Returns to original departure point

You can tour Las Vegas from a bus or walking the streets. You can climb the Stratosphere Tower to see it from above, but nowhere else can you experience a view of Las Vegas from the sky like this one, onboard a helicopter flying high above Sin City. After a hotel pickup in a deluxe Mercedes Sprinter van (if option selected) you'll be escorted to the helicopter terminal to check-in for your Las Vegas helicopter tour. Prior to departure, enjoy a complimentary glass of sparkling wine, then climb aboard a luxurious Eurocopter AS350B2 helicopter with forward-facing seats and 180 degrees of unrestricted panoramic viewing. Once in the air, fly over the historic downtown district to the casinos and resorts of the dazzling Las Vegas Strip. Get a bird’s-eye view of the majestic Stratosphere Tower, the Fountains of Bellagio, the 315,000-watt Sky Beam of the Luxor pyramid—and everything in between. Upgrade to include a dinner at a local Las Vegas restaurant. Itinerary Pass By:   The Strip Fly over the beautiful Las Vegas City Lights Pass By:   Stratosphere Tower Fly past the 1149 foot ( 350 meters) high Strat Tower! Pass By:   Fountains of Bellagio Fly past the Bellagio Hotel maybe see the fountains in action! Pass By:   Las Vegas Downtown Fly over historic downtown vegas Pass By:   Fremont Street Experience Fly over the Historic Fremont Street Experience. Stop At:   PAMPAS LAS VEGAS Make it a night to remember and upgrade to include a dinner at Pampas Brazilian Grille at Planet Hollywood Hotel and Casino. Make your own way to this authentic Churrascaria restaurant in the Miracle Mile shops on the Las Vegas Strip for your 6pm reservation. Please check the image carousel for the menu. You will then be picked up from the restaurant and driven to the heliport for your flight over the Las Vegas Strip. After your flight, you will be returned to your Las Vegas hotel. Please note: The time you select at checkout is the flight time. Gratuity (recommend USD12-15 per person) and alcoholic beverages are not included for dinner. Duration: 1 hour 30 minutes Admission Ticket Included Stop At:   Bonefish Grill Why not include a dinner with your flight to make it a night to remember in Las Vegas? Make your own way to Bonefish Grill, conveniently located at Town Square on South Las Vegas Blvd where you can dine on a 3-course menu (Please check the image carousel for the menu). Your reservation will be set for 6pm, then you will then be picked up from the restaurant and driven to the heliport for your flight over the Las Vegas Strip. After your flight, you will be returned to your Las Vegas hotel. Please note: The time you select at checkout is the flight time. Gratuity is included for the dinner, but not on any additional purchases. Duration: 1 hour 30 minutes Admission Ticket Included

Meeting Venue
Hilton Garden Inn Pittsburgh University Place
Star rating 3
Address 3454 Forbes Avenue ,  Pittsburgh (PA) 15213 ,  Pennsylvania , United States America, North America
Rate Average USD
Overview
Hilton Garden Inn University Place Meeting Rooms & Events Meeting Capacity: 13 meeting rooms Largest Meeting Room Capacity: 200 people Hilton Garden Inn University Place Business Services A-V Equipment Business Center Copier Fax Meeting Facilities Administrative Services Meeting Room Internet Access (High Speed & Wireless) Forbes Ballroom Meeting Room Portable Walls Available: No Size: 2,436 sq ft Capacities: Theater: 200 Reception: 200 Banquet: 180 U-Shape: 80 Forbes B Meeting Room Portable Walls Available: No Size: 1,537 sq ft Capacities: Theater: 150 Reception: 100 Banquet: 100 U-Shape: 42 Forbes A Meeting Room Portable Walls Available: No Size: 899 sq ft Capacities: Theater: 60 Reception: 40 Banquet: 40 U-Shape: 26 Carlow Meeting Room Portable Walls Available: No Size: 494 sq ft Capacities: Theater: 50 Banquet: 40 U-Shape: 20
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Think Tanks
Data Wikipedia
History
Main articles: History of the United States and Outline of United States history
Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history
Further information: Native Americans in the United States, Prehistory of the United States, and Pre-Columbian era
Aerial view of the Cliff Palace
The Cliff Palace, built by the Native American Puebloans between AD 1190 and 1260
It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, some evidence suggests an even earlier date of arrival. The Clovis culture, which appeared around 11,000 BC, is believed to represent the first wave of human settlement of the Americas. This was likely the first of three major waves of migration into North America; later waves brought the ancestors of present-day Athabaskans, Aleuts, and Eskimos.

Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, architecture, and complex societies. The city-state of Cahokia is the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States. In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloan culture developed from centuries of agricultural experimentation.The Haudenosaunee, located in the southern Great Lakes region, was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. Most prominent along the Atlantic coast were the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, along with limited cultivation.

Estimating the native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult. Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states,but most academics regard this figure as too low. Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting around 1.1 million along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, 2.2 million people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5.2 million in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries, and around 700,000 people in the Florida peninsula.

European settlements
Further information: Colonial history of the United States and Thirteen Colonies
Claims of very early colonization of coastal New England by the Norse are disputed and controversial. The first documented arrival of Europeans in the continental United States is that of Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first expedition to Florida in 1513. Even earlier, Christopher Columbus had landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage, and San Juan was settled by the Spanish a decade later. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico, such as Saint Augustine, often considered the nation's oldest city, and Santa Fe. The French established their own settlements along the Mississippi River, notably New Orleans. Successful English settlement of the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and with the Pilgrims' colony at Plymouth in 1620.The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses, was founded in 1619. Documents such as the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut established precedents for representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies. Many English settlers were dissenting Christians who came seeking religious freedom. In 1784, the Russians were the first Europeans to establish a settlement in Alaska, at Three Saints Bay. Russian America once spanned much of the present-day state of Alaska.

In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and European settlers. In many cases, however, the natives and settlers came to depend on one another. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts; natives for guns, tools and other European goods. Natives taught many settlers to cultivate corn, beans, and other foodstuffs. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural practices and lifestyles. However, with the increased European colonization of North America, the Native Americans were displaced and often killed. The native population of America declined after European arrival for various reasons, primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles.

Map of the U.S. showing the original Thirteen Colonies along the eastern seaboard
The original Thirteen Colonies (shown in red) in 1775
European settlers also began trafficking of African slaves into Colonial America via the transatlantic slave trade. Because of a lower prevalence of tropical diseases and better treatment, slaves had a much higher life expectancy in North America than in South America, leading to a rapid increase in their numbers. Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and several colonies passed acts both against and in favor of the practice. However, by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves had supplanted European indentured servants as cash crop labor, especially in the American South.

The Thirteen Colonies (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia) that would become the United States of America were administered by the British as overseas dependencies. All nonetheless had local governments with elections open to most free men. With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly, eclipsing Native American populations. The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious liberty.

During the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), known in the U.S. as the French and Indian War, British forces captured Canada from the French. With the creation of the Province of Quebec, Canada's francophone population would remain isolated from the English-speaking colonial dependencies of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Thirteen Colonies. Excluding the Native Americans who lived there, the Thirteen Colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas. The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their unprecedented success motivated British monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.

Independence and expansion
Further information: American Revolution and Territorial evolution of the United States
See caption
Declaration of Independence, a painting by John Trumbull, depicts the Committee of Five presenting the draft of the Declaration to the Continental Congress, July 4, 1776.
The American Revolutionary War fought by the Thirteen Colonies against the British Empire was the first successful war of independence by a non-European entity against a European power in modern history. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism", asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their "rights as Englishmen" and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.

The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776; this day is celebrated annually as Independence Day. In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.

After its defeat at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781, Britain signed a peace treaty. American sovereignty became internationally recognized, and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Tensions with Britain remained, however, leading to the War of 1812, which was fought to a draw.[82] Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. Going into force in 1789, this constitution reorganized the federal government into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.

Map of the U.S. depicting its westward expansion
Territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917
Although the federal government outlawed American participation in the Atlantic slave trade in 1807, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[84][85][86] The Second Great Awakening, especially in the period 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[87] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.

Beginning in the late 18th century, American settlers began to expand westward,[89] prompting a long series of American Indian Wars. The 1803 Louisiana Purchase almost doubled the nation's area,[91] Spain ceded Florida and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819,[92] the Republic of Texas was annexed in 1845 during a period of expansionism,[93] and the 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[94] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest, making the U.S. span the continent.[89][95]

The California Gold Rush of 1848–1849 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide[96] and the creation of additional western states.[97] The giving away of vast quantities of land to white European settlers as part of the Homestead Acts, nearly 10% of the total area of the United States, and to private railroad companies and colleges as part of land grants spurred economic development.[98] After the Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade, and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[99] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s.

Civil War and Reconstruction era
Main articles: American Civil War and Reconstruction era
Drawing of the Battle of Gettysburg, depicting soldiers charging forward and firing a cannon
The Battle of Gettysburg, fought between Union and Confederate forces on July 1–3, 1863, around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, marked a turning point in the American Civil War.
Irreconcilable sectional conflict regarding the enslavement of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[100] With the 1860 election of Republican Abraham Lincoln, conventions in thirteen slave states declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South" or the "Confederacy"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[101] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 620,000 soldiers as well as upwards of 50,000 civilians.[102] The Union initially simply fought to keep the country united. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery except as penal labor. Two other amendments were also ratified, ensuring citizenship and voting rights for blacks.

Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865 drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.

Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction, beginning the nadir of American race relations. From 1890 to 1910, the Redeemers established so-called Jim Crow laws, disenfranchising most blacks and some impoverished whites throughout the region. Blacks would face racial segregation nationwide, especially in the South.[103] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[104]

Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization
Main articles: Economic history of the United States, Immigration to the United States, and Technological and industrial history of the United States
File:Emigrants (i.e. immigrants) landing at Ellis Island -.webm
Film by Edison Studios showing immigrants disembarking at Ellis Island in New York Harbor, which served as a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S.[105]
In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[106] National infrastructure, including telegraph and transcontinental railroads, spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[107]

The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890.[108] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and their confinement to Indian reservations. Additionally, the Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[109] Mainland expansion also included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[110] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[111] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[112] The U.S. Virgin Islands were purchased from Denmark in 1917.[113]

Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in the railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest.[114] These dramatic changes were accompanied by growing inequality and social unrest, which prompted the rise of organized labor along with populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[115] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, and greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[116][117][118]

World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The Empire State Building in the 1940s, towering above its neighbors in Midtown Manhattan
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression.
The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917 when it joined the war as an "associated power" alongside the Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[119]

In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[120] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[121] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal.[122] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[123] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[124]

Four soldiers plant a U.S. flag on a long pole on a bare mountaintop
U.S. Marines raising the American flag on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in one of the most iconic images of the war
At first effectively neutral during World War II, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers, and in the following year, to intern about 120,000[125] U.S. residents (including American citizens) of Japanese descent.[126] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy.[127] The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation. During the war, the United States was one of the "Four Powers"[128] who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union, and China.[129][130] Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel,[131] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[132]

The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[133] The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history, the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[134][135] The United States developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945; the Japanese surrendered on September 2, ending World War II.[136][137]

Cold War and late 20th century
Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), History of the United States (1980–1991), and History of the United States (1991–2008)
Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics
See caption
Martin Luther King Jr. gives his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, 1963.
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism.[138] They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.[139]

The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, occasionally supporting authoritarian right-wing regimes.[140] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–1953.[141] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first crewed spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the Moon in 1969.[141] The United States became increasingly involved in the Vietnam War (1955–1975), introducing combat forces in 1965.[142]

At home, the U.S. had experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class following World War II. After a surge in female labor participation, especially in the 1970s, by 1985, the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[143] Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[144][145] In 1959, the United States formally expanded beyond the contiguous United States when the territories of Alaska and Hawaii became, respectively, the 49th and 50th states admitted into the Union.[146] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead.[147] A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[148][149][150] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew, which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, the Black Power movement, and the sexual revolution.[151]

The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[152]

The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. The United States supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War; in response, the country faced an oil embargo from OPEC nations, sparking the 1973 oil crisis. After his election, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the Soviet Union.[153][154] The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the Soviet Union, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[155][156][157] This brought about unipolarity[158] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower.[159]

After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing the spread of instability, in August, President George H. W. Bush launched and led the Gulf War against Iraq; waged until February 1991 by coalition forces from 34 nations, it ended in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and restoration of the monarchy.[160]

Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[161] Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history.[162] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), causing trade among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to soar.[163]

21st century
Main article: History of the United States (2008–present)
Further information: September 11 attacks, War on terror, Great Recession in the United States, and COVID-19 pandemic in the United States
Dark smoke billows from the Twin Towers over Manhattan
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda in 2001
On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda terrorist hijackers flew passenger planes into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[164] Hundreds more died later from illnesses related to the attacks, and perhaps thousands of first responders, cleanup workers, and survivors suffer from long-term effects.[165] In response, President George W. Bush launched the War on Terror, which included a nearly 20-year war in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2021 and the 2003–2011 Iraq War.[166][167] A 2011 military operation in Pakistan led to the killing of Osama bin Laden.[168]

Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[169] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[170] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[171] led to the United States housing bubble in 2006, which culminated with the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the Great Recession, the nation's largest economic contraction since the Great Depression.[172] During the crisis, assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their value.[173] Barack Obama, the first multiracial[174] president, with African-American ancestry was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[175] and subsequently passed American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 economic stimulus and the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis.

Republican Donald Trump was elected as the 45th president in 2016, a result viewed as one of the biggest political upsets in American history.[176] Trump led the country through the first waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, which as of December 2021 is estimated to have killed over 900,000 Americans.[177] In 2020, in what was seen as a repudiation of Trump's divisive leadership, Democrat Joe Biden was elected as the 46th president.[178] On January 6, 2021, supporters of outgoing President Trump stormed the United States Capitol in an unsuccessful effort to disrupt the presidential Electoral College vote count.[179]

Data State Goverment United States America 
Science, Technology, and Innovation
POLICY ISSUES

Science, technology, and innovation are cornerstones of the American economy. They are also dominant forces in modern society and international economic development. Strengthening these areas can foster open, transparent, and meritocratic systems of governance throughout the world.

The Department of State executes public diplomacy programs that promote the value of science to the general public. It also implements capacity-building programs in emerging markets that train young men and women to become science and technology entrepreneurs, strengthening innovation ecosystems globally. The Department’s efforts contribute to scientific enterprises that hasten economic growth and advance U.S. foreign policy priorities.

Using a Whole-of-Government Approach To Advance Health Objectives
OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL HEALTH AND BIODEFENSE

IHB collaborates with interagency colleagues to effectively implement health priorities across the U.S. government, including on cross-cutting issues like antimicrobial resistance.

Global health security is a national security priority reflected in the first pillar of the U.S. National Security Strategy  (NSS). The Office of International Health and Biodefense (IHB) collaborates with interagency colleagues to ensure health security policies are sound and effectively implemented across U.S. departments and agencies. In September 2018, the President launched the U.S. National Biodefense Strategy (NBS)  outlining – for the first time – a comprehensive and integrated U.S. approach to address natural, accidental, and intentional biological threats domestically and internationally. In May 2019, the White House released the Global Health Security Strategy (GHSS) , which outlines the United States Government’s approach to strengthen global health security, including by improving the capacity of foreign countries to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease outbreaks. IHB engages the U.S. interagency and diverse stakeholders to implement these strategies.

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is a significant threat to achieving the objectives identified in the NSS, NBS, and the GHSS. AMR is a significant threat to health systems and requires a multi-sectoral response. AMR reduces the effectiveness of treatments for viral, bacterial, and fungal infections and results in prolonged illness and greater risk of death for infected patients. AMR puts at risk modern medical advances involving surgery, chemotherapy, maternal and child health, and treatments for infectious diseases like tuberculosis. IHB works with U.S. interagency and global partners to advance a comprehensive, strategic, and innovative approach to combat AMR globally.